Diseases of immune system include the pathological states developing against the background of change of effector mechanisms of immunity. Diseases of immune system are classified taking into account activity of immune reactions: in case of hyper reaction to external allergens allergic diseases develop, at the perverted reaction to own (endogenous) fabric anti-genes – autoimmune diseases. At hyporeactivity of immune system there are immunodeficiency at which the organism becomes vulnerable to different infections. The main bodies of immune system are marrow, , the spleen, almonds, lymph nodes, and also lymphoid tissue of mucous membranes.further...
Diseases of immune system include the pathological states developing against the background of change of effector mechanisms of immunity. Diseases of immune system are classified taking into account activity of immune reactions: in case of hyper reaction to external allergens allergic diseases develop, at the perverted reaction to own (endogenous) fabric anti-genes – autoimmune diseases. At hyporeactivity of immune system there are immunodeficiency at which the organism becomes vulnerable to different infections. The main bodies of immune system are marrow, , the spleen, almonds, lymph nodes, and also lymphoid tissue of mucous membranes.
Doctors of various specialties are engaged in diagnostics and treatment of diseases of immune system: allergic pathology and immune insufficiency are in sight of allergists-immunologists, autoimmune diseases (depending on the leading syndrome) – in competence of specialists rheumatologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, etc. At the same time, in developing of allergic, immunodeficient and autoimmune pathology the close interrelation is traced. For example, at deficiency of sekretorny immunoglobulin A the chronic infectious damages of skin which are complicated further by autoimmune diseases can develop in the beginning (dermatomiozity, rheumatoid arthritis, hard currency and bronchial asthma.
Diseases of immune system at which the condition of an immunodeficiency develops can be primary – congenital or hereditary and secondary – acquired. The agammaglobulinemiya, a lymphocytic disgeneziya, Louis Bar syndrome, Viskotta-Aldrich's syndrome, etc. concern to the first group. Secondary immunodeficiencies can develop against the background of infectious, limfoproliferativny, metabolic diseases, intoxication, radiation, reception of medicines (immunodepressants, corticosteroids). At them the cellular or/and humoral link of immunity, system of a fagotsitoz can be damaged. The most known form of a secondary immunodeficiency is AIDS (HIV infection).
As the general manifestations accompanying various immunodeficiencies serve recurrent infections - pneumonia, infections of urinary tract, meningitis, generalized candidiasis, herpes, , etc. Immunodeficient a state are often combined with allergic diseases - eczema, Quincke's hypostasis. Today it is proved that congenital defects or the acquired deficiency of any immune factors play the leading role in development of many oncological diseases. Patients with the expressed immune insufficiency often perish from opportunistic infections.
Identification or confirmation of an immunoyodefitsit requires a special laboratory research of the immune status: determination of number and a morfoloyogiya of lymphocytes, contents of immunoglobulins in blood serum, issledoyovany systems of a complement, definition of specific antibodies, etc. Carrying out a biopsy of lymph nodes, a X-ray analysis of bodies of a thorax, ultrasonography of a timus and a spleen can be shown. Treatment of the diseases of immune system proceeding with immunological insufficiency provides replacement therapy (introduction of immunoglobulins, serums, transplantation of marrow), immunocorrection, immunomodulation.
The special category of diseases of immune system is made by autoimmune violations. At this group of diseases of a cage of immune system show an autoaggression in relation to fabrics of own organism. Prevalence of autoimmune diseases is extremely high – about 5-7% of the population of the planet have them. Diseases of immune system share with the autoallergichesky mechanism on organospetsifichesky – at them an autoantitela are directed against a concrete target organ (autoimmune gastritis, autoimmune tireoidit, autoimmune hepatitis, etc.), neorganospetsifichesky – in this case different bodies and fabrics (a sklerodermiya, hard currency, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) and mixed can attack an autoantitel.
Bacterial and viral infections, radiative effects, medicinal and toxic substances, stress can act as the triggers starting the cascade of immunopathological reactions. A number of autoimmune diseases is caused by hereditary factors. Joint and muscles pains, skin rash, set or loss of weight, fatigue, the raised bleeding or tendency to thromboses, fever, muscular weakness are characteristic of many diseases of immune system of this group. The majority of autoimmune diseases has steadily progressing current, and without the corresponding treatment they can lead to a heavy invalidization.
The most valuable methods of diagnosis of diseases of autoimmune character are the laboratory researches directed to identification in blood autoantitet to various fabrics, the circulating immune complexes, ostrofazovy proteins, components of system of a complement, genetic markers. As many antibodies are not specific to this or that pathology, and are found at a number of diseases of immune system, laboratory diagnostics is always supplemented with tool methods (a X-ray analysis, ultrasonography, endoscopy, a stsintigrafiya, a biopsy, etc.). In recent years will make considerable progress in treatment of diseases of immune system. Traditional approach includes performing immunosupressorny therapy, anti-inflammatory therapy by corticosteroids, efferent therapy (a hemodialysis, a plasma exchange, haemo sorption). According to indications surgical treatment (a splenektomiya is carried out at hemolytic anemia, a perikardektomiya at an autoimmune perikardit, a tireoidektomiya at an autoimmune tireoidit etc.). Very encouraging prospects are opened by transplantation of CD34+ of autologichny stem haemo poetic cells.
In the section "Immune Diseases" of the reference book "Medicine-for-you.com" the detailed list of immunodeficient and autoimmune pathologies is built. Having got acquainted with them, the reader will obtain exhaustive information on the reasons, a current, modern opportunities of diagnostics and treatment of diseases.further...