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Violations of a bearing

Violation of a bearing – a steady deviation from normal position of a body. Is followed by strengthening or smoothing of physiological bends of a backbone. Is not a disease unlike scoliosis and a pathological kifoz, however in a sense can be considered as a condition of a predisease as significantly increases probability of development of a number of diseases of the musculoskeletal device. Correction by performance of special exercises is recommended. In some cases carrying proofreaders is required.

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Violations of a bearing

Violations of a bearing – group of the states which are followed by steady change of position of a body when standing, sitting and walking. Is widespread pathology. In the last decades the number of people with postural defects increases that is caused by change of living conditions: reduction of a share of physical work, decrease in the general level of physical activity in connection with wide circulation of the benefits of a civilization and need long time to stay in a sitting position in operating time, studies etc.

Though the bearing to some extent is genetically determined (caused by hereditary factors), depends on features of a constitution and is formed mainly in children's and youthful years, it can be changed by strengthening of muscles and development of new motive stereotypes. Correction of postural defects, in any case partial is simpler to carry out correction at early age, however, it is possible also at adults.

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Anatomy

Normal bearing – result of evolution. It carries out a number of tasks: provides position of a body at which the volume and efficiency of movements as much as possible increases; reduces probability of injuries, especially at high physical activity; allows to keep vertical position of a trunk at the minimum load of muscles, bones and sheaves. There are accurate criteria of a normal bearing, however the bearing of each person has unique, only to him inherent features. The option of a bearing depends on three groups of factors: conditions of bones, sheaves and muscles; motive stereotypes (a set of the reflexes providing performance of habitual actions) and features of a constitution.

The normal bearing represents something between a rest bearing (arises at muscular fatigue and in a condition of relaxation) and a working bearing (it is formed at an active tension of muscles). Well expressed physiological bends of a backbone are characteristic of such bearing. The spine column looks evenly "wavy". If in a standing position to carry out a vertical axis from the middle of a skull, it will pass on the rear edge of the lower jaw, then – on a tangent in relation to a cervical lordoz. Then slightly "will cut off" lumbar , will cross the middle of the line of heads of hips between centers, will pass before knee joints and will come to the end slightly kpered from the line between Shopar's joints.

At external survey of the person with a normal bearing the symmetric arrangement of all parts of a body in relation to a backbone is visible. The head holds strictly vertical position. The chin is slightly raised, trestles of ears and bottom edges of eye-sockets are at one level. The line of nadplechiya is located horizontally, the belt is tightened, shovels are pressed, the thorax is raised.

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Reasons

The reasons of violations of a bearing are numerous and various. Quite often postural defects arise at simultaneous action of several factors. Most often the bearing changes as a result of long stay in the wrong situation because of bad lighting, inconvenient furniture (for example, the school desk which is not corresponding to age and growth), constant carrying weights (a portfolio, a bag) in one hand. An essential role in violation of a bearing is also played by a lack of physical activity – weak muscles of a stomach and a back are not able to hold a body in physiologic situation long.

Decrease in sensitivity of receptors thanks to which messages on the correct position of a body are transferred to a brain is also among the contributing factors. Besides, postural defects can turn out to be consequence of the pathological changes of the musculoskeletal device which arose because of malformations (violation of a shape of vertebras, a dysplasia of coxofemoral joints and congenital dislocation of a hip, congenital deformations of feet, anomalies of development of a knee joint etc.), injuries (a state after amputation of an extremity, post-traumatic contractures of joints of the lower extremities, hip fractures, shin fractures, fractures of bones of foot) and diseases (rickets, flat-footedness). Sometimes diseases of internals, decrease in hearing are the reason of postural defects (relative deafness) or violations of sight.

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Classification

Violations of a bearing can arise in two planes – in the perednezadny and side directions. Postural defects in the perednezadny direction are formed at reduction or strengthening of normal bends of a backbone. Postural defects in the side direction are followed by violation of symmetry between half of a trunk.

Allocate the following types of violations of a bearing:

  • The violation of a bearing in the perednezadny direction which is followed by strengthening of physiological bends of a spine column: round and concave back, round back, stoop.
  • The violation of a bearing in the perednezadny direction which is followed by reduction of physiological bends of a spine column: plano-concave back, flat back.
  • Violation of a bearing in the side direction: asymmetric bearing.

Types of violations of a bearing

Stoop – the violation of a bearing which is followed by strengthening of a chest kifoz in combination with reduction of a lumbar lordoz. The vertical axis of a body deviates kzad the line of heads of hips between centers. are raised, some reduction of shoulder joints is observed. Often wing-shaped shovels come to light (a vystoyaniye of inner edges or bottom corners of shovels over a thorax).

Round back – the postural defect which is followed by the expressed strengthening of a chest kifoz in combination with lack of a lumbar lordoz. Elasticity of a backbone is increased, the center of gravity of a body is displaced. To keep balance, the person goes and costs on a little bent legs. are raised, the head is inclined forward, shoulder joints are a little given. Hands are located from a trunk not on each side, and slightly in front. Often wing-shaped shovels come to light. The stomach acts.

Kruglovognuty back – the violation of a bearing which is followed by strengthening of all normal bends of a spine column. The head is pushed forward, shoulder joints are given, are raised. Wing-shaped shovels are often observed. The stomach acts. Legs of a pererazognuta or are slightly bent in knees.

Flat back – the postural defect which is followed by reduction of bends of a spine column. It is especially strongly reduced lumbar . The tilt angle of a basin is maleficiated. The thorax is displaced forward. The vystoyaniye of the lower part of a stomach is noted. Because of smoothing of physiological bends at such violation of a bearing depreciation properties of a backbone therefore blows at jumps, run and other similar loadings almost without "clearing" are transferred to the skull basis, and from there – to a brain worsen.

Plano-concave back – the violation of a bearing which is followed by smoothing of a chest kifoz at the strengthened or normal lumbar lordoz. In some cases reduction of a cervical lordoz is also observed. Legs of a pererazognuta or are slightly bent. Basin is displaced kzad. Often wing-shaped shovels come to light.

The violations of a bearing which are followed by smoothing of bends of a spine column are considered as manifestation of functional inferiority of bone and muscular system. The backbone in such cases is easily injured even at the insignificant injuring influences. Patients often have progressing side curvatures of a backbone.

Skoliotichesky (asymmetric) bearing – the postural defect which is followed by a habitual bend of a spine column to the right or to the left from the median line. The left-side deviation is more often observed. At survey the arc-shaped curvature of a backbone behind is visible. The shovel and a shoulder on the one hand are raised, with another – are lowered. Triangles of a waist are uneven. At the same time, unlike scoliosis, there are no signs of twisting of vertebras: the muscular roller sideways from a curvature is absent, the costal hump is not expressed. In hanging a deviation disappears, the backbone becomes equal, parts of a body – symmetric.

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treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

Treatment of violations of a bearing includes performance of special exercises and carrying proofreaders. LFK at postural defects is directed to strengthening of muscles of buttocks, a stomach and back. The program is formed individually and provides both the static, and dynamic exercises supplemented by exercises on extension of muscles. Over time loading increases. The LFK complex provides preservation of rather intensive motive mode without load of a backbone.

Chest belts, reklinator and grudopoyasnichny proofreaders can be applied to passive posture correction. Reklinatora are used at weak muscles of a humeral belt in combination with insignificant violations of a bearing. They help to eliminate stoop and to part shoulders. More expressed stoop and an asymmetric bearing are the indication for wearing chest belts. Grudopoyasnichny proofreaders are used at any violations of a bearing, unsharply expressed kifoz and scoliosis.

It is necessary to consider that the main destination of proofreaders of a bearing – correction of dynamic stereotypes (motive habits, habitual provisions of a body). Their application provides necessary effect only in combination with LFK occupations as at weak muscles after removal of the proofreader the trunk will come back again gradually to pathological situation. The proofreader no more than 4 hours a day is recommended to use. Selection of all types of proofreaders is carried out by the orthopedist taking into account age of the child, type and expressiveness of violations of a bearing.

In addition to the listed techniques at postural defects can be and manual therapy. These techniques have auxiliary value, their purpose – improvement of blood supply of muscles and sheaves, activization of exchange processes in fabrics, removal of functional blocks and the correct distribution of a muscular tone.

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Prevention

Any violations of a bearing complicate work of internals and provoke early development of dystrophic processes in joints and a backbone. Osteochondrosis, hernias of disks and arthroses of joints of the lower extremities can become a consequence of this pathology. Preventive measures for the prevention of violations of a bearing include a dream on an orthopedic mattress or a hard bed, observance of a day regimen, the adequate mode of physical activity developed according to age and a physical condition of the child (including providing compensation of "lag" in physical development).

For prevention of violations of a bearing at children it is necessary to watch that the child evenly loaded a backbone when carrying weights (to use a backpack instead of a portfolio), to select furniture taking into account growth of the child and like occupations and to provide the reasonable organization of lighting. It is necessary to treat and correct in due time a hearing disorder and sight, to choose convenient footwear, to carry out correction of flat-footedness, to perform treatment of congenital anomalies, consequences of skeletal injuries and diseases of internals.

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Violations of a bearing - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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