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Infectious diseases

  

Infectious diseases include extensive group of the diseases caused by specific pathogenic (pathogenic) activators and transmitted from the infected individual to healthy. As features of infectious diseases serve their contageousness (transmissibility), ability to mass epidemic distribution, recurrence of a current and formation of post-infectious immunity. However these features at different infectious diseases are expressed in various degree.

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Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases include extensive group of the diseases caused by specific pathogenic (pathogenic) activators and transmitted from the infected individual to healthy. As features of infectious diseases serve their contageousness (transmissibility), ability to mass epidemic distribution, recurrence of a current and formation of post-infectious immunity. However these features at different infectious diseases are expressed in various degree.

Infectious diseases develop as a result of difficult biological process of interaction of a pathogenic microorganism with a susceptible macroorganism in certain conditions. In development of infectious diseases allocate several periods: incubatory (hidden), prodromalny (period of harbingers), period of development of clinical manifestations, disease outcome period. The result of infectious process can develop by several options: convalescence (recovery), lethality, bakterionositelstvo, transition to a chronic form.

Infectious diseases make from 20 to 40% in the general structure of diseases of the person. Many medical and microbiological disciplines are engaged in studying, treatment and prevention of infections: actually infectious diseases, epidemiology, venereology, urology, gynecology, therapy, phthisiology, otolaryngology, immunology, virology, etc.

The number of infectious diseases known to science constantly increases and contains more than 1200 units now. For the life the person contacts to a huge number of microorganisms, however is capable to cause infectious processes only 1/30000 part of this community. Viruses, rikketsiya, bacteria, fungi have properties of pathogenicity.

Depending on the place of primary localization of process and a certain mechanism of transfer infectious diseases share on intestinal (dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis, , paratyphus And yes In, a typhoid, food toksikoinfektion); infections of airways (SARS, flu, chicken pox, measles, mikoplazmenny respiratory infection); external covers (ugly face, anthrax, itch); blood infections (HIV infection, malaria, yellow fever, returnable and sypny typhus); infections with multiple ways of transfer (enteroviral infections, infectious ).

By the nature of the activator distinguish infectious diseases: virus (viral hepatitises A, B, D, E and With, flu, a rubella, measles, Cytomegaloviral and herpetic infections, HIV infection, a meningococcal infection, hemorrhagic fevers); bacterial (staphylococcal and streptococcal infection, cholera, salmonellosis, plague, dysentery); protozoan (malaria, trichomoniasis, ); mycoses or fungal infections (aspergillomycosis, candidiasis, epidermofitiya, ).

Infectious diseases are subdivided on antroponozny and zoonozny. Carry the infections peculiar to antroponoza only to people and transferred from the person to the person (natural smallpox, diphtheria, a typhoid, measles, dysentery, cholera, etc.). Zoonoza are diseases of animals which also people (a foot-and-mouth disease, anthrax, rage, a tulyaremiya, plague, listeriosis, leptospirosis, a brucellosis) can catch.

The diseases caused by activators of an animal origin – parasites (ticks, insects, protozoa), are called invasive or parasitic.

Distinguish group of especially dangerous (quarantine) infections with high degree of transmissibility, tendency to bystry distribution, a heavy epidemic current and high risk of a lethal outcome in the shortest possible time from the infection moment from infectious diseases. To especially dangerous infections the World Health Organization carried plague, natural smallpox (it is considered eradicated in the world since 1980), cholera, yellow fever (and similar to it on fever epidemiology Marburg and Ebola). In our country the tulyaremiya and anthrax are also ranked as especially dangerous infections.

Treatment of patients with infectious diseases is carried out in specialized hospitals or offices, in mild cases – in house conditions. An indispensable condition of successful treatment of infections is observance of the high anti-epidemic security. Prevention of the majority of infectious diseases is observance of sanitary and hygienic rules and specific immunization.

The medical reference book of diseases posted on the website "Medicine-for-you.com" contains the special section - infectious diseases where you will be able to find useful information about the causes, mechanisms of development and clinical displays of infections, and also about the modern diagnostic and medical techniques applied in this field of medicine.

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