Laryngitis – sharp or chronic inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of a throat and vocal chords, is more often than the virus nature. It is shown by feeling of dryness, a scratching in a throat, an osiplost or the lack of a voice "barking" cough. At children of younger age development of a false croup - the hypostasis of a mucous throat blocking intake of air constitutes danger. Generally the forecast favorable, is possible transition of a sharp form of a disease to chronic.
Laryngitis – sharp or chronic inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of a throat and vocal chords, is more often than the virus nature. It is shown by feeling of dryness, a scratching in a throat, an osiplost or the lack of a voice "barking" cough. At children of younger age development of a false croup - the hypostasis of a throat blocking intake of air constitutes danger. Generally the forecast favorable, is possible transition of a sharp form of a disease to chronic.
The risk of development of sharp laryngitis increases at the general or local overcooling, inhalation of dusty air and the irritating substances, an overstrain of vocal chords, smoking, a gastroesophagal reflux, abuse of alcoholic drinks. Age changes of a throat can act as risk factors (deformation of vocal chords, insufficient moistening mucous, an atrophy of muscles).
Depending on character and depth of defeat allocate two forms of sharp laryngitis:
- Sharp catarrhal laryngitis. The mucous membrane, a submucous layer and internal muscles of a throat is involved in process.
- Sharp flegmonozny laryngitis. Purulent defeat of blankets, muscles and ligaments of a throat. Sometimes cartilages and a periosteum are surprised.
The disease begins sharply against the background of full health or a small indisposition. Patients show complaints to dryness, burning, tickling, a scratching in a throat. Sometimes there is a feeling of a foreign matter, convulsive dry cough or morbidity when swallowing develops. The voice "sits down", becomes rough and hoarse.
Development of an aphonia at which the patient can speak only in a whisper is possible. Body temperature normal or subfebrilny. After a while cough becomes damp, at cough a large number of a mucous or mucopurulent phlegm separates. Duration of sharp laryngitis – 7-10 days. In most cases there occurs recovery. Transition to subsharp or chronic laryngitis is possible.
At distribution of inflammatory process on subcopular space the sharp stenosis of a throat develops. At small children sharp laryngitis sometimes is followed by the expressed hypostasis of a mucous membrane of a throat (false croup). Access of air is at a loss, the child chokes, worries, cries. At a heavy current owing to a hypoxia work of a brain can be broken. Loss of consciousness and even a lump is possible. Symptoms of a false croup are the indication for urgent hospitalization.
The diagnosis of sharp laryngitis is established by the otolaryngologist on the basis of a characteristic clinical picture and results of a laringoskopichesky research. When carrying out a laringoskopiya hypostasis and the poured hyperaemia of a mucous membrane of a throat, a thickening and hyperaemia of voice folds comes to light. On a surface of vocal chords – phlegm pieces. At flu hemorrhages in a mucous membrane sometimes develop.
In the general blood test is defined . At suspicion on the bacterial nature of the infectious agent the bacteriological research separated and washouts from a rotoglotka is conducted.
Treatment of sharp laryngitis is carried out on an outpatient basis. At the sharp laryngitis which arose against the background of a SARS, the bed rest is shown to the patient. In other cases release from work is given only to persons whose kind of work assumes constant performances (announcers, actors, teachers, lecturers, etc.).
To patients recommend not to talk to sharp laryngitis whenever possible. At a conversation it is necessary to speak as it is possible more quietly, but not in a whisper, pronouncing words on an exhalation. Exclude spicy, cold and hot food from a diet. Forbid to smoke or take alcohol. At a dense viscous phlegm appoint expectorant means (extract of a thyme liquid, potassium bromide, root extract ) and the medicines diluting a phlegm (, Bromhexine, ). Recommend to drink warm alkaline water. Apply steam inhalations and the warming semi-spirit compresses on area of a neck to reduction of an inflammation. Locally use aerosol antibiotics. Perform the distracting procedures (mustard plasters, moderately hot foot bathtubs). At the long course of sharp laryngitis and inefficiency of treatment antibiotic treatment is carried out.
The forecast is favorable. Transition of sharp laryngitis to chronic is in some cases possible.
Chronic laryngitis can become an outcome of sharp laryngitis or develop as a result of long influence of the irritating factors (dust content of air, inhalation of the irritating substances, smoking etc.). At people of some professions (announcers, lecturers, actors) laryngitis results from a constant overstrain of muscles and ligaments of a throat.
On the nature of defeat allocate catarrhal, hyper plastic (limited or diffusion) and atrophic chronic laryngitis. At people of golosorechevy professions limited hyper plastic laryngitis (the small knots of vocal chords called also by small knots of singers or small knots of shouters) develops.
The general state is not broken. Patients note hoarseness, feeling of a sadneniye and irritation in a throat, bystry fatigue of a voice. Periodically there is cough with a phlegm. Symptoms amplify at a process aggravation.
"chronic laryngitis" forms the basis for diagnosis a clinical picture and data of a laringoskopichesky research. At the patient's laringoskopiya with chronic catarrhal laryngitis stagnant hypostasis and hyperaemia of a mucous membrane of a throat comes to light.
The characteristic laringoskopichesky picture of diffusion hyper plastic laryngitis includes puffiness, hyperaemia, a thickening of a mucous membrane, a spindle-shaped thickening of free edges of vocal chords. At limited hypertrophic laryngitis symmetric nodular educations are observed. The gleam of a throat is filled with dense slime.
At laringosokopichesky survey of the patient with chronic atrophic laryngitis dryness and thinning of a mucous membrane of a throat comes to light, the Throat is covered with the dense slime forming crusts.
It is necessary to exclude the factors supporting an inflammation, to observe the correct voice mode. To patients the uses of alcoholic drinks, spicy, hot and cold food recommend to refuse smoking. Appoint warm drink, physiotherapy (quartz, UVCh, magnetotherapy), alkaline and oil inhalations.
Sites of a hypertrophy at chronic hypertrophic laryngitis cauterize 5% silver nitrate, big small knots delete in the surgical way. Perform operation on removal of excess fabric of voice folds. To the patients having chronic atrophic laryngitis recommend to grease a throat with glyceric solution of Lugol daily. For mitigation of crusts and simplification of process of their otkhozhdeniye appoint aerosol medicines of proteolytic enzymes (chymotrypsin, ).