Deprive at children – group of the infectious dermatosis of the fungal or virus nature proceeding with rashes, an itch, a peeling, violation of pigmentation of skin, a hair loss. Different types occur at children depriving (cutting, multi-colored, red flat, otrubevidny, surrounding), the having specific manifestations. For identification depriving at children dermatological diagnostics is carried out: survey of skin under Wood's lamp, microscopy of scrapes, a virologic and cultural research. Depriving treatment at children includes quarantine actions, processing of affected areas of skin antifungal, antiviral, kortikosteroidny medicines, physiotherapeutic influence.
Deprive at children
Deprive at children – the umbrella term designating viral and fungal diseases of skin at children, various on an etiology, external manifestations and a current. Statistically, this or that look depriving about 90% of the children visiting various child care facilities are surprised. In children's dermatology deprive it is diagnosed for children aged up to 14 years more often. In view of the fact that some types depriving of a vysokokontagiozna also constitute danger to surrounding children and adults, at any skin changes it is necessary to show the child to the pediatrician, the children's dermatologist or the infectiologist.
Experts in the field of pediatrics most often should face cases cutting depriving (a trichophytia and a microsporia), otrubevidny (multi-colored), pink (depriving of Zhiber), is more rare – red flat and shingles at children.
Depriving of the reason at children
Taking into account the activators causing them, herpeses at children share on fungal and virus. We deprive infection of children usually occurs in collectives (kindergarten, school, the camp), public places (pools, baths, hairdressing salons), at close contact with animals (dogs, cats), non-compliance with rules of personal hygiene.
Cutting deprive at children has two versions a microsporia and a trichophytia. The first of them is called by parasitic fungi of Microsporum canis; the second - Trichophyton tonsurans. By the main carriers of threat of infection with cutting it is deprived for children patients with a fungal infection animals and people act. In some cases the disease is transmitted through the objects of use and personal belongings containing fungus disputes (toys, basts, hairbrushes, he).
Otrubyevidny or multi-colored deprive at children treats the skin mycoses caused by a drozhzhepodobny fungus of three types - Pityrosporum orbiculare, P. Ovale or Malassezia furfur. This fungus quite often lives on integuments, without causing pathological changes. Infectious diseases (tuberculosis, AIDS), hormonal violations (diabetes, a colloidal craw, obesity, Cushing's disease), , seborrhea, rheumatism, , a leukosis, hereditary predisposition can be an incitement for fungal process. Multi-colored deprive and meets at children at teenage age more often. As favourite habitats of pathogenic fungi serve sites of skin with a big congestion of sweat glands.
Pink deprive at children usually there are after the postponed respiratory and intestinal infections, vaccination, sharp feverish states. Causes of illness are definitely not known; presumably the virus of herpes of the person of type 7 (HHV7) acts as the activator, and the infection is transmitted in the airborne or contact way. Pink it is deprived children and adults aged from 10 up to 35 years get sick.
Etiology red flat depriving it is also studied insufficiently. Now a number of theories is considered (hereditary, virus, immunoallergic, nevrogenny, intoksikatsionny).
Shingles at children is better known as the surrounding herpes. The disease is caused by a virus of herpes Varicella zoster which is also the causative agent of chicken pox. After the postponed chicken pox the virus "dozes" in nervous gangliya and becomes more active under the influence of adverse factors. The Seronegativny children contacting to sick shingles can get sick with chicken pox.
The greatest incidence of fungal it is deprived among children it is noted in warm season; virus – during cold seasons. To emergence depriving at children immunity easing, a lack of vitamins, overfatigue contributes; existence of a SARS, allergic reactions, vegetonevroz, the increased perspiration, small injuries of skin.
Depriving symptoms at children
Cutting deprive at children
Cutting deprive is the most widespread fungal disease among children affecting skin, hair, nails. From the moment of infection with a fungus before emergence of symptoms depriving at children can pass from 5 days to 6 weeks. At damage of skin the delimited round and reddish oval spots are formed. Skin on these sites is covered with crusts and scales, is strongly shelled; the itch and burning are sometimes expressed.
If cutting deprive at children strikes a hairy part of the head, it is followed by formation of the large center of baldness of rounded shape in which borders hair are broken off (as though are cut) at the level of 4-8 mm from head skin. Around the main center numerous similar ochazhka of defeat can settle down small, sometimes.
Otrubevidny (multi-colored) deprive at children
Favourite localization otrubevidny depriving at children "seboreyny zones" - a hairy part of the head and the top half of a trunk serve. In a disease debut around mouths of hair follicles there are yellowish points which then are transformed to a spot of the pink-yellow (fulvous) color covered with otrubevidny scales. Elements gradually expand on the periphery, merging in larger centers. At a poskablivaniye of scales there is a noticeable peeling.
Coloring of affected areas can vary from light-cream till dark-brown color that served the double name depriving at children – otrubevidny or multi-colored. We deprive the zones struck, have property not to darken from suntan that explains emergence on skin in children of the hypopigmented sites.
Depriving the Seboreyny or atopic dermatitis at children associated with the activator - P. orbiculare (ovale), the risk factor of formation of forms, complicated and resistant to traditional therapy, is.
Pink deprive at children
At a typical form pink depriving on the child's trunk in the beginning primary center - a single maternal plaque is formed. It has an appearance of a bright pink oval spot from 2 to 5 cm in size in the diameter. Approximately in 7 – 10 days multiple secondary rashes of smaller size (1-2 cm), an oval form develop. Existence of a peeling in the center of a spot and a red border, free from scales, – on the periphery why they remind a medallion is characteristic of rashes. As a rule, spots, settle down in natural folds of skin (on Langer's lines).
At defeat by pink we deprive of children the small itch can disturb. The period of rashes lasts 4-6 weeks, then elements independently completely disappear. At constant irritation of affected areas of skin (washing, friction about clothes, ultra-violet radiation) rashes can be infected, leading to purulent complications - follikulita, impetigo, a gidradenit.
Red flat deprive at children
This version depriving occurs at children extremely seldom. At a disease skin, mucous membranes are surprised, it is rare – nails. The dermatosis is characterized by monomorfny rash in the form of flat small knots of bright red or cyanotic color with a brilliant surface, with a diameter of 2-3 mm. Red flat deprive is followed by the intensive itch depriving of children of a dream. Merging, small knots form small plaques with small scales on their surface.
Characteristic localization of rashes at red flat herpes at children - the sgibatelny surfaces of forearms, luchezapyastny joints, the internal surfaces of hips, inguinal and axillary areas, mucous membranes of a mouth.
Shingles at children
Shingles (herpes) develops at children 10 years and the adults who had chicken pox in the past are more senior. Emergence of skin rashes at shingles at children is preceded by a grippopodobny state – an indisposition, a poznablivaniye, temperature increase, feeling of burning, a sleep or pricking on the course of sensitive nerves, in a zone of future rashes.
In 1-2 days on an eritematozno-edematous background there are groups of bubbles of 0,3-0,5 cm in size filled with transparent contents. Rash settles down linearly, on the course of large nervous trunks and nervous branches. In the period of active rashes high fever, the irradiating pains on the course intercostal and a trigeminal nerve, lymphadenitis is noted. Several days later contents of bubbles grow turbid and dry up; on their place crusts which then disappear are formed, leaving behind easy pigmentation. Recovery usually occurs in terms from 15 days up to 1 month.
At shingles at children stomatitis, conjunctivitis can develop, keratit, iridotsiklit, neuritis of visual and glazodvigatelny nerves, neuralgia. At the weakened children shingles can be complicated by serous meningitis, encephalitis, miyelity.
Diagnostics depriving at children
Diagnostics depriving at children, and also definition of its form is carried out by the children's dermatologist, the mycologist or the infectiologist. For confirmation of the estimated diagnosis the doctor performs visual inspection of integuments, special tests, luminescent diagnostics. To each form depriving at children the features are inherent in morphology of elements, and also characteristic fluorescence of affected areas at survey of skin of the child under a lamp Wood.
For definition of specific accessory of fungal activators the research of scrape of skin under a light microscope, scrape / separated on microflora is conducted. For the purpose of confirmation of the diagnosis red flat depriving at children sometimes it is necessary to resort to a biopsy of skin and a research of morphology of cages and fabrics.
Differential diagnostics depriving at children vitiligo, a gnezdny alopetion at children (is carried out with psoriasis, eczema, local allergic reactions, children's infections (measles, a rubella), at the cutting herpes).
Depriving treatment at children
The scheme of therapy depriving at children depends on a type of an infection and expressiveness of manifestations. In all cases treatment has to be carried out under control of the dermatologist. Depriving infectious forms demand isolation of the sick child and the temporary termination of contacts with it of other children.
Depriving treatment at children, caused by fungal activators, assumes a sbrivaniye of hair in a defeat zone, reception of system antimycotics (griseofulvin), processing of skin antifungal ointments, performing the all-strengthening vitamin therapy, immunomodulatory therapy. At a severe itch of skin antihistaminic medicines, kortikosteroidny ointments are appointed. In case of defeat flexible a hairy part of the head medical shampoos on a fungicide basis are applied. As criterion of an izlechennost at fungal herpeses at children serves the triple negative analysis on mushrooms.
Therapy of shingles at children is carried out by antiviral medicines of local and general action (interferon, an acyclovir), analgetics, NPVS. Greasing of the centers of rashes by brilliant green and other disinfecting solutions for the prevention of nagnoitelny complications is carried out. Are very effective at shingles at children physiotherapeutic procedures – , Ural federal district, ultrasonic therapy, an electrophoresis, a diathermy, magnetic field. At the expressed pain syndrome novokainovy blockade, reflexotherapy are carried out.
Important point is strict observance of rules of hygiene (regular change of linen and child's clothes, their washing and a proglazhivaniye; prevention of combing of elements; disinfection of personal care products), temporary exception of the general water procedures, hypoallergenic food.
Prevention depriving at children
The factors allowing to prevent infection we deprive, serve: full isolation of the sick child from healthy children; restriction of contacts of children with homeless animals; regular survey of pets by the veterinarian. It is extremely important to pay attention to strengthening of immunity of children, to impart to children hygienic skills.
Depriving treatment at children – the long and demanding patience process. Often disappearance of visible manifestations does not mean at all an absolute recovery therefore it is necessary to maintain strictly the time frames of therapy and a quarantine specified by the doctor.