The bite, that is smykaniye of teeth is the key parameter of normal development and functioning of zubochelyustny system. The Ortognatichesky bite at which upper teeth slightly cover lower is considered norm, such bite occurs at most of people. The wrong bite develops in force of genetic determinancy, in the presence of a habit to suck a finger, vsledstivy chronic violation of nasal breath. The orthodontist is engaged in correction of a bite. It can be carried out by means of special devices and a cap, reteyner and breket-systems.
The bite, that is smykaniye of teeth is the key parameter of normal development and functioning of zubochelyustny system. The Ortognatichesky bite at which upper teeth slightly cover lower is considered norm, such bite occurs at most of people.
Formation of a bite
There are five periods of formation of the correct ortognatichesky bite if there are deviations in any of the periods, then formation of the wrong bite and other anomalies of zubochelyustny system is possible.
The first period since the birth before half a year; from 6 months to three years there is a formation of a temporary bite - it is the second period throughout which all temporary teeth are cut through. The third period from 3 to 6 years is preparatory as the active growth of jaws for further eruption of second teeth begins. From 6 to 12 years the active growth of jaws is observed and second teeth therefore this period is called mixed are in parallel cut through. And the fifth period from 12 to 16 years is characterized by final formation of a bite and replacement of all temporary teeth by constants.
If there are violations of growth of jaws or violation in a teething, then it can lead to formation of the wrong bite. For example, to density of teeth, it occurs if second teeth were cut through in time and large, and growth of a jaw stopped. Violation of growth of a jaw can sometimes end with lack of canines, cutters or premolyar or formation of intervals and diasty. The wrong bite because of violation of growth of jaws can be shown by a deviation from a normal arrangement of teeth and to turn of a part of teeth on one of jaws. Sometimes cutters of one jaw considerably block another; the open wrong bite when cutters are not closed absolutely is in rare instances formed.
At a disteel wrong bite the top jaw is excessively developed or the underdevelopment of the lower jaw is on the contrary noted. At a mezialny bite the lower jaw forward is pushed. And at a deep bite upper teeth close lower more than on a half. The open wrong bite is formed if the most part of teeth at contact of jaws is not closed. If the unilateral underdevelopment of one of tooth alignments is formed, then such bite call cross. And an allotopia call the wrong bite at which teeth take not the place among.
Reasons of formation of the wrong bite
Hereditary predisposition is the main reason for formation of the wrong bite. The wrong care of the child during formation of a bite can result in various defects of zubochelyustny system. In the period of a neonatality the top jaw of the child is more, than lower. Due to natural feeding by the end of the first year of life of a jaw are leveled. If during sucking of a breast the child , then alignment of jaws occurs not in full that is fraught with development of the wrong bite. At artificial feeding the hole in a nipple has to be small that the child made efforts for exhaustion, excessively big hole does not demand active chewing and sosatelny movements therefore the jaw does not develop.
The child should not sleep all the time in one pose therefore parents need to control position of the child during sleep. In general the bed has to be convenient, but not excessively soft, the child's body in a dream weakened, besides the child should not enclose a cam or toys under a cheek.
It is necessary to stop addictions at the child to suck a finger, a baby's dummy and foreign objects. It leads to the fact that teeth are removed as far as the baby's dummy size allows. The crack between the top and lower tooth alignment is as a result formed.
The spoiled bearing can influence formation of a bite at preschool and younger school age. Because of the wrong situation the head leaves trunks forward that can provoke deformation of a jaw and formation of the wrong bite.
The frequent diseases proceeding with violation of nasal breath in combination with other factors increase risk of development of one of types of the wrong bite. Soft tissues of lips, language and cheeks take part in formation of jaws, and if nasal breath is broken, and the mouth is constantly slightly opened, development of jaws happens to deviations.
The wrong bite is both an esthetic lack, and a cause of infringement of nasal breath, speech and mimic violations. Sometimes the wrong bite leads to development of LOR-diseases and frequent respiratory viral infections that comes to an end with formation of chronic otitises, antritises, sinusitis and pharyngitises.
At the wrong bite food is badly chewed as teeth are closed not completely or in general there is no contact between them. It can become the reason of diseases of digestive tract and caries as due care of an oral cavity is impossible.
Stages of correction of the wrong bite
The orthodontics is engaged in therapy of the wrong bite. At the first stage there is a preparation for orthodontic treatment which includes a complex of diagnostic actions by results of which degree of complexity of therapy is defined. For this purpose do the orthopan-tomogram (a panoramic picture), a radioviziografiya or use data of a computer tomography. Pictures allow to see and estimate extent of changes in zubochelyustny system. Further carry out sanitation of an oral cavity: treatment of caries and professional hygiene of an oral cavity. Treatment of associated diseases which can become aggravated in the course of installation of briquettes is important.
During the second stage of correction of the wrong bite make installation of briquettes, for their fixing glue composites are used. However, depending on type of briquettes different techniques of installation are used. Each vestibular briquette is pasted on the forward surface of teeth which need correction, further on them basic rings fix, and pass a power arch throughout locks. The arch is made of the materials having elasticity and elasticity at the expense of what it to seek to occupy that form which it was given originally.
It is more difficult to establish Lingvalny briquettes as the internal relief of a tooth alignment is more various. In the beginning the mold of tooth alignments then the breket-system is fulfilled on this design becomes and only then it is fixed by glue on the internal surface of teeth.
Process of installation of briquettes painless and seldom is followed by unpleasant feelings. However within a week at the patient the pain syndrome which is recommended to be stopped analgetics can be observed, in case of severe pains it is necessary to see a doctor who is engaged in correction of the wrong bite.
The third period is recovery or retentsionny. The actions which are held to this period are directed to fixing received by means of briquettes of results. At the wrong bite after sharp removal of briquettes teeth after a while again will reach the position in order to avoid what reteyner, which carrying period twice longer, than the period of carrying briquettes use.
Duration of carrying reteyner depends on the general condition of zubochelyustny system, on age of the patient and on presence at it of system diseases. Reteynera can be removable and fixed, fixed devices fasten similar to briquettes on the lingvalny surface of teeth that does them imperceptible for people around. Removable reteyner represent orthodontic plates which fasten for the night. Pressure displacing the lower jaw is created at the expense of plastic arches and a cap. Silicone reteyner become more popular as are almost not noticeable during the conversation and at a smile.
Duration of orthodontic treatment for half a year up to 2 years. All this time it is necessary to pay special attention to care of orthodontic devices. Efficiency of correction of the wrong bite depends on that, care of them was how qualitatively and regularly made. When carrying breket-systems access to teeth is complicated that can promote development of caries. Toothbrushing needs to be made after each meal and to use special brushes for the patients taking a course of correction of the wrong bite. Use of superfloss which thanks to a firm tip, are easily passed between teeth at edge of a gum helps to remove the food remains from sites which are inaccessible for cleaning by a toothbrush and the brush.
For correction of the wrong bite it is necessary to refuse carbonated drinks, viscous food, chewing gum, nuts, candies and honey as these products are difficult cleaned off from tooth enamel and can damage breket-system.