Violation of a menstrual cycle
Rhythmic repeating, hormonal caused processes in a female body which are followed through certain time intervals by menstrual bleeding are called a menstrual cycle. During a menstrual cycle the organism undergoes the changes aimed at providing the conditions necessary for emergence and course of pregnancy: development and maturing of an ovum, its fertilization and an attachment to a mucous membrane of a cavity of a uterus. Formation of menstrual function belongs to the pubertatny (puberty) period. As a rule, menarche (the first periods) falls on 11-14 years then within 1 - 1,5 years the regularity of a menstrual cycle is established.
Violation of a menstrual cycle
During a menstrual cycle the organism undergoes the changes aimed at providing the conditions necessary for emergence and course of pregnancy: development and maturing of an ovum, its fertilization and an attachment to a mucous membrane of a cavity of a uterus.
Formation of menstrual function belongs to the pubertatny (puberty) period. As a rule, menarche (the first periods) falls on 11-14 years then within 1 - 1,5 years the regularity of a menstrual cycle is established. Duration of a cycle is estimated from the first day of the real periods to the first day of following. Depending on individual physiology the menstrual cycle normal makes from 21 to 30-35 days, the thicket is 28 days old. Fading of menstrual function happens in 45-50 years, in the climacteric period.
Regulation of a menstrual cycle happens under the influence of the difficult neurohumoral mechanism which is carried out by a cerebral cortex, a hypophysis, a hypothalamus, ovaries to interest of a vagina, uterus, mammary glands.
Sekretiruyemye gipotalamo-hypophysial system gonadotropny hormones - FSG, LG and LTG (follikulostimuliruyushchy, lyuteiniziruyushchy and lyuteotropny hormones), cause changes in ovaries – the yaichnikovy cycle including:
- follicular phase – process of maturing of a follicle
- ovulation phase – a rupture of the ripened follicle and an ovum exit
- progesteronovy (lyuteinovy) phase - development of a yellow body
At the end of a menstrual cycle in the absence of the come true fertilization of an ovum the yellow body regresses. Sexual gomona of ovaries (estrogen, gestagena) cause change of a tone, krovenapolneniye, excitability of a uterus, dynamic processes in a mucous membrane, t. the uterine cycle consisting of two phases:
- proliferation phases – restoration, healing of a wound surface and further development of a functional layer of endometrium. This phase occurs along with process of maturing of a follicle.
- secretion phases – a loosening, a thickening and rejection (deskvamation) of a functional layer of a mucous membrane of a uterus. Rejection of a functional layer is shown by periods. On time this phase coincides with development and death of a yellow body in an ovary.
Thus, normal the menstrual cycle is two-phase: with follicular and lyuteinovy phases of a yaichnikovy cycle and, corresponding to them, phases of proliferation and secretion of a uterine cycle. Normal the listed above cyclic processes repeat through certain intervals of time throughout all female childbearing age again and again.
Menstrual function can be broken as a result of gynecologic diseases (myoma and cancer of a uterus, an inflammation of appendages and a uterus), a serious ekstragenitalny illness (diseases of blood, endocrine bodies, a liver, the central nervous system, heart diseases), infections, hypovitaminosis, traumatic injuries of a uterus (at tool manipulations – abortion etc.), a stress and a mental trauma.
Violations of a menstrual cycle can be shown in change of rhythm and intensity of periods: lengthening or shortening of an interval between them, increase or reduction of amount of the emitted blood, in inconsistency of a rhythm of periods. Frustration of a menstrual cycle proceed in a look:
- amenore – lack of periods over 6 months
- the hyper menstrual syndrome (a giperpolimenorea, a menorragiya) including:
- – plentiful menstrual bleedings;
- – periods lasting over 7 days;
- – the speeded-up periods with shortening of an interval less than 21 day
- the hypomenstrual syndrome including:
- – poor menstrual allocations;
- – the shortened periods (no more than 1-2 days);
- – excessively rare, with an interval more than 35 days, periods
- algomenore – painful periods;
- dismenore – the periods which are followed by the general violations (a headache, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting);
- algodismenore - the periods combining local morbidity and the general violations of health
- the anovulyatorny (single-phase) uterine bleedings which are a consequence of violations of neuroendocrine regulation and characterized by lack of an ovulation and a yellow body.
Menstrual dysfunction at a single-phase menstrual cycle can be caused by a follicle persistention (maturing of a follicle without ovulation and further development of a follicular cyst) or an atresia (a degeneration, a zapustevaniye) of an unripe follicle.
The method of regular morning change of rectal (basal) temperature is applied to detection of two-staging of a menstrual cycle in gynecology. At a two-phase menstrual cycle in a follicular phase temperature in a rectum is less than 37 °C, and in lyuteinovy - it is more than 37 °C, with decrease for one - two days prior to the beginning of periods. At an anovulyatorny (single-phase) cycle the temperature curve differs in indications less than 37 °C with small fluctuations. Measurement of basal temperature is a physiological method of contraception. Also at a two-phase cycle in a cytologic picture of dabs separated from a vagina during the different periods characteristic changes are observed: symptoms of "thread", "pupil", etc.
Metrorragiya, that is the acyclic uterine bleedings which are not connected with a menstrual cycle accompany tumoral damages of a reproductive system of the woman more often. The women suffering from frustration of a menstrual cycle surely have to undergo consultation of the gynecologist and necessary inspections for establishment of the reasons of violations. Treatment of menstrual dysfunctions has to be directed to elimination of the reasons which caused frustration.
Often the subsequent violations of menstrual function can be caused by the wrong laying and a differentiation of genitals of a fruit even during pre-natal development. Chemical, medicamentous, beam agents, infectious diseases of mother can serve as the negative factors causing an underdevelopment of ovaries in girls. Therefore prevention of violations of menstrual function should be begun with the period of antenatalny (pre-natal) development of a fruit, carrying out conducting pregnancy. The healthy nutrition and a way of life, care about the general and women's health will help to avoid frustration in menstrual function.