The microsporia is a mikotichesky disease of skin, hair and nail plates. The causative agent of a microsporia is the keratinofilny mold fungus of the sort Microsporum which parasitizes in the horny substrata. About 50-70 cases of a disease fall on hundred thousand people. The microsporia has seasonal nature. Its incubatory period makes 4-6 weeks and comes to an end with emergence on skin of a red and edematous spot. Further there are new elements having the typical form of rings. The dermatoskopichesky and luminescent research, identification of threads of a mycelium in scrape from smooth skin helps to establish the diagnosis of a microsporia. Treatment comes down to local and general use of antimikotichesky medicines.
The microsporia is a mikotichesky disease of skin, hair and nail plates. The causative agent of a microsporia is the keratinofilny mold fungus of the sort Microsporum which parasitizes in the horny substrata. About 50-70 cases of a disease fall on hundred thousand people. The microsporia has seasonal nature, and the majority of cases are the share of the end of summer and an early autumn, it is connected with removal of posterity at cats and other animals.
Source and ways of infection with a microsporia
As the causative agent of a microsporia is widespread in the nature, infection is perhaps universal, but in regions with roast and a humid climate the microsporia is diagnosed more often. The infection or is transmitted in the contact way through objects, obsemenenny by fungus disputes. Children at the age of 5-10 years have a microsporia more often, at the same time among boys incidence is five times higher, than among girls. Adults seldom have a microsporia, in case of infection the disease practically samoizlechivatsya always thanks to availability of organic acids in a hair which suppress growth of a mycelium.
Entrance gate for the causative agent of a microsporia are skin microinjuries; dryness, existence of attritions and omozolelost increase too probability of infection as healthy skin without damages is not available to a fungus inokulyation. Virulence of a microsporia low, and therefore at timely washing of hands even obsemenenny disputes, a disease does not come. Frequent contacts with the earth, wild animals, perspiration of hands and violation of the chemical composition of a secret of sweat and sebaceous glands increase probability of developing of a microsporia. In the soil disputes of the causative agent of a microsporia remain from one to three months.
At introduction the mushroom begins to breed and strikes a hair follicle then the infection extends to all hair that leads to destruction of a cuticle of a hair between which scales mushroom disputes accumulate. As a result the microsporia mycelium completely surrounds a hair, densely fills a bulb and forms a cover around a hair.
The microsporia caused by antropofilny type of a fungus has the incubatory period from 4th to 6 weeks then on smooth skin there is an edematous red spot towering over a surface, it has accurate outlines and gradually increases in a size. Further the centers of defeat look as pronounced rings which consist of small knots, bubbles and crusts. Rings are usually entered one in another or are crossed, sometimes tend to merge. Diameter of rings at a microsporia fluctuates from 0,5 to 3 cm, and their quantity seldom reaches five.
At children and young women at a microsporia pronounced inflammatory reaction and a small peeling of the centers of defeat is possible. The microsporia does not manage to be diagnosed for patients who are inclined to atopic dermatitis in due time as the fungus quite often masks under displays of dermatitis, and therapy by hormonal medicines only strengthens symptomatology and provokes further spread of a microsporia.
The microsporia of a hairy part of the head occurs at children aged from 5 up to 12 years, and by the time of puberty completely passes. The phenomenon is connected with change of the chemical composition of skin fat and emergence in it and as a part of a hair of organic acids which are pernicious for a fungus. With red hair the microsporia practically does not occur at children.
The centers of defeat settle down on the top, on parietal and temporal areas, usually the microsporia of head skin is shown in the form of 1-2 large centers to 5 cm in the diameter with eliminations of smaller on each side. On the place of defeat arises shelled the site as at first the fungus strikes only mouths of hair bulbs. At attentive survey it is possible to notice white ring-shaped scales which surround a hair as a manzhetka. In a week the microsporia extends also to hair, they become fragile and fragile. Hair break off at distance of 4-6 mm from head skin, and the site of defeat looks as tonsured. Hemp of hair are covered with disputes of a mushroom and seem strewn lightly with powder of grayish-white color. At defeat by a microsporia the smoothed hair do not redeem the initial situation because lose elasticity and elasticity. Head skin at a microsporia is edematous, slightly hyperemic, its surface is covered with grayish-white scales.
The Nagnoitelny form of a microsporia is clinically shown by knots, soft on a consistence, which are located on cyanotic-red skin. The surface of knots is covered with numerous gnoynichka. When pressing pus droplets are allocated for infiltrate through openings. Nagnoitelny forms of a microsporia arise at the late request for medical care, irrational therapy and self-treatment, and also in the presence of serious associated diseases which reduce protective properties of an organism.
Diagnosis of a microsporia
Data of clinical examination and existence in the anamnesis of contact with animals are enough that the dermatologist could suspect a microsporia. At Dermoscopy and microscopy of scrape the mycelium and changes of hair, characteristic of mycoses, and skin is found. But displays of a microsporia and a trichophytia at usual microscopy are identical, by means of this laboratory research it is only possible to confirm existence of a fungal disease, but not to establish the exact diagnosis.
Cultural diagnosis of a microsporia by crops with the subsequent identification of the activator is more informative, but demands more time though with its help it is possible to establish not only a look, but also a fungus sort and also to pick up the most effective medicines for treatment. The luminescent research allows to examine quickly both the patient with a microsporia, and contact persons. The mycelium of a fungus shines a green luminescence, but the reason of this phenomenon is not studied. At early stages of a microsporia the luminescence can be absent as hair are not rather affected. However, during removal of a hair and the subsequent research in a root part the luminescence is observed even at the end of the incubatory period. The luminescent method allows to reveal the causative agent of a microsporia at the patient and contacting to it, and also to estimate effectiveness of therapy.
Treatment and prevention of a microsporia
In treatment of a microsporia depending on weight of defeat apply local and general antifungal therapy. Locally apply creams, ointments and emulsions with antifungal medicines - and others, depending on age of the patient and from a physiological state. It is necessary to consider that some antifungal medicines even of local application at pregnancy and in the period of a lactation need to be used with care. The ointments and sprays of new generation which are applied to processing of the centers of a microsporia do not leave on skin and clothes of fat spots that will allow patients to feel comfortable during treatment.
If there is a pronounced inflammatory reaction, then apply the combined medicines which contain antifungal and hormonal components. Alternation of applications with ointments and processing by iodic solutions if there is no damage of skin, renders good therapeutic effect. The microsporia complicated by a secondary infection well will respond to treatment ointment which part are beta metazones, gentamycin and . At deep defeats the medicines containing a dimethyl sulfoxide are applied.
Prevention of a microsporia consists in regular survey of children in kindergartens for identification of patients, in restriction of contacts with vagrant animals and in respect for personal hygiene. Acquisition of pets without survey of the veterinarian can lead to the intra family outbreaks of a microsporia that demands more attentive approach to their purchase.