Narcology – the section of clinical medicine which studies chronic physical and mental dependences on chemicals. Drug addiction, alcoholism and various toxicomanias are among narcological problems. The main objectives of narcologists are timely detection of dependences, selection of effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation, prevention of a recurrence, and also scheduled maintenance on prevention of alcoholism, toxicomania and drug addiction.further...
Narcology – the section of clinical medicine which studies chronic physical and mental dependences on chemicals. Drug addiction, alcoholism and various toxicomanias are among narcological problems. The main objectives of narcologists are timely detection of dependences, selection of effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation, prevention of a recurrence, and also scheduled maintenance on prevention of alcoholism, toxicomania and drug addiction.
Dependences often are complicated by development of mental and somatic pathology therefore narcologists work in cooperation with doctors of other specialties: psychotherapists, therapists, neurologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists etc. The narcology is a part of psychiatry, narcologists have qualification of psychiatrists, the mental violations caused by abuse of various substances including – an alcoholic depression, alcoholic deliry, alcoholic hallucinosis and other frustration can diagnose and treat. Most of narcologists undergo special training and can use in the work hypnosis, and also various psychotherapeutic technicians.
Distinguish two big groups of narcological problems: drug addiction and toxicomania. Biological distinctions between two of these types of dependences do not exist, the difference is that the substances accepted by addicts from the point of view of the law belong to the category narcotic, and the substances accepted by glue sniffers do not. Alcoholism is toxicomania, however it is usually considered separately owing to prevalence of this dependence and its high danger to an organism, the personality and the social status of the patient.
In group of drug addiction carry a heroinomania, a kokainomaniya, methadone dependence, efedronovy dependence, dependence on hashish, abuse of an acid, abuse of "ecstasy", amphetamine dependence etc. The group of toxicomanias includes dependences on psychostimulators (caffeine, , some sports dopes), a nicotinomania etc. At unsuccessful children and teenagers toxicomanias with use of household and technical liquids are quite often observed: glue, gasoline, acetone and nitropaints. Allocate also polytoxicomanias – dependences on two and more psychoactive agents.
Symptoms at narcological problems are defined by a type of narcotic or toxic substance, its dose, term and weight of dependence, a condition of an organism, psychoemotional features dependent and other factors. The long use causes characteristic changes. At alcoholics the alcoholic polyneuropathy and alcoholic encephalopathy quite often develops. At long abuse of benzodiazepines there is an organic defect of the personality with a memory impairment and judgments, selfishness and decrease in working capacity etc. At the majority of dependences the liver, kidneys and heart suffer.
Diagnosis in narcology is carried out as by collecting the anamnesis and objective survey of the patient, and with use of special techniques. For confirmation of the fact of alcohol intake and narcotic substances in the recent past (within 1-3 days) carry out expertize of alcoholic intoxication, investigate saliva, urine and blood by the immunokhromatografichesky analysis, carry out chemical toxicity tests on drugs. For establishment of the fact of reception of psychoactive medicines within several months before test define antibodies to narcotic substances and make the analysis of hair on drugs.
Treatment of patients with narcological problems can be emergency and planned, be carried out in stationary conditions, on an outpatient basis or at home. Removal from hard drinking at alcoholism is among the emergency actions and a detoxication at drug addiction. Help can be given at home only in mild cases: at short hard drinkings, small "experience" of alcoholism or drug addiction. Treatment in the conditions of specialized clinic is shown to other patients.
Actions for a detoxication and removal of an abstinence syndrome are carried out after survey and inspection, under control of the qualified narcologist. The scheme of treatment includes intravenous drop administration of solutions in combination with soothing and antipsychotic means, medicines for normalization of exchange processes and improvement of function of internals. There are several programs of treatment: standard, double and deep clarification of an organism at removal from hard drinking, a classical and ultrabystry opioid detoxication.
Planned treatment provides holding actions for prevention of the use of the substance causing dependence. Medicines, non-drug methods or complex techniques can be applied. At drug treatment enter the medicine of long action (at alcoholism usually – to disulfira, at drug addiction – ) changing effect of alcohol or drug and causing a number of unpleasant consequences into an organism of the patient. Esperal, the Torpedo, MST, SIT, NIT, Algominal and other means is used.
Coding on Dovzhenko and gipnosuggestivny influence is among non-drug techniques. In that and in other case the doctor influences mentality of the patient, developing at it belief about inadmissibility of acceptance of alcohol and emergence of negative consequences at its use. Complex methods mean simultaneous use of medicines and non-drug ways of treatment, sometimes – in combination with other techniques (for example, acupuncture).
Treatment can be carried out as it is out-patient, and in a hospital. In the second case the patient in addition receives the help of the psychologist and medicinal therapy for normalization of a mental and physical state. Closely stationary techniques of treatment are adjoined by stationary rehabilitation of the patients suffering from dependences. Rehabilitation actions are carried out in narcological clinics and the special centers. Also out-patient rehabilitation is possible (for example, according to the 12 steps program).
Any dependence negatively influences a way of life, social communications, mental sets and behavioural patterns of the patient. Alcohol or drugs become "the center of life", forcing out other interests and the relations with people. After refusal of reception of alcohol or drugs of the patient faces a set of the psychological problems caused by need to restore the life and to fill emptiness which was occupied earlier by drugs or alcohol. The rehabilitation programs providing the help of the professional psychologists and "colleagues by misfortune" who safely refused reception of psychoactive agents are also designed to solve this complex challenge.
The narcotic problem is a problem not only the patient, but also his family, and also society in general. Alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania reduce average life expectancy, increase crime rate, increase the number of accidents in life and on production, become the reason of an exit to disability and provoke domestic violence. Work on diagnostics, treatment and prevention of dependences is the major social problem which is solved by narcologists. Chances of the solution of this problem for each specific patient increase with his active participation, internal readiness and desire to be exempted from dependence.
On the website "Medicine-for-you.com" the special section in "The medical reference book of diseases" is allocated for narcological problems. In this section the development reasons, symptoms, complications, ways of diagnostics and treatment of dependences are in detail described. Here you can find information on modern ways of identification and treatment of narcological problems, and also the catalog of the specialized clinics providing the help of the narcologist.further...