Oncological diseases include tumoral processes of various localization and histologic structure. In a broad sense they unite good-quality and malignant new growths, however the practical oncology specializes, mainly, in treatment of malignant tumors. Now oncological diseases considerably "rejuvenated" and have really epidemic character therefore search of ways of their prevention, early identification and treatment represents an urgent cross-disciplinary problem. For its decision in separate medical specialties the narrow directions – an onkoginekologiya, an onkourologiya, an onkodermatologiya, an onkooftalmologiya, neurooncology, etc. are allocated.further...
Oncological diseases include tumoral processes of various localization and histologic structure. In a broad sense they unite good-quality and malignant new growths, however the practical oncology specializes, mainly, in treatment of malignant tumors. Now oncological diseases considerably "rejuvenated" and have really epidemic character therefore search of ways of their prevention, early identification and treatment represents an urgent cross-disciplinary problem. For its decision in separate medical specialties the narrow directions – an onkoginekologiya, an onkourologiya, an onkodermatologiya, an onkooftalmologiya, neurooncology, etc. are allocated.
There is a set of forms of tumors which differ with localization, cellular structure, aggression degree, features of a current and the forecast and a number of other factors. In oncology of a tumor it is accepted to divide on good-quality, conditionally good-quality (boundary) and malignant. Good-quality new growths differ in rather slow growth, lack of tendency to metastasis, the good forecast. Rank as such types of tumors fibromas, lipomas, a nevus, papillomas, leyomioma, nevrinoma, hondroma, angioma and . other.
Conditionally benign tumors also do not give metastasises, however have ability to cancer regeneration and a repeated retsidivirovaniye after removal. Adenomatozny polyps of a stomach, atypical birthmarks, a skin horn, senile , Bowen's disease, etc. can be examples of similar oncological diseases. Invasive growth, germination of surrounding fabrics, metastasis, a retsidivirovaniye is peculiar to tumors of malignant character. Cancer (carcinoma), sarcoma, a lymphoma belong to such types of tumors.
Annually in the world the oncopathology is diagnosed approximately for 10 million people, and 8 million patients die of this or that form of cancer. In Russia every fifth compatriot risks to face an oncological disease during life. According to WHO data, "rating" of the most widespread oncological diseases looks as follows. So, the most frequent "female" type of cancer is the breast cancer; it is followed closely by uterus neck cancer. The absolute leader among a male oncopathology is the prostate cancer.
As the most often diagnosed and deadly types of oncological diseases, irrespective of a sex, are recognized: lung cancer, cancer of a large intestine, cancer of a stomach and cancer of a liver. Cancer of a bladder and kidneys, a pancreas, leukemia, a melanoma become slightly more rare causes of death. Among oncological diseases of children's age the leukosis, a neuroblastoma, Vilms's tumor, a lymphoma, osteosarcoma, a retinoblastoma prevail.
Today the set of the reasons leading to development of malignant tumors is known. Among them – adverse heredity, environmental problems, production and household harm, stresses, irrational food, unhealthy habits, low-active lifestyle, viral diseases, etc. At the same time, as show researches, about 80% of risk factors are potentially removable, t. the majority of cases of oncological diseases can be prevented. For this purpose efforts not only specialists oncologists, but, first of all, – the individual are required.
For the purpose of early detection of oncological diseases regular passing of preventive medical examination is offered, periodic medical examinations of a certain contingent of persons are performed, comprehensive programs of an onkoskrining for men and women are developed and take root (" check-up"). To all persons 40 years are more senior it is necessary to pass a preventive onkoobsledovaniye once in 2 years, and to people with the burdened background – annually. As the most frequent researches included in an onkoskrining serve definition of onkomarker of blood (REA, AFP), ultrasonography of abdominal organs and kidneys, a thyroid gland, fluorography, FGDS, a kolonoskopiya. For women consultation of the gynecologist, ultrasonography of bodies of a small pelvis, a kolposkopiya, cytologic dab, definition of CA 15-3 and SA-125, mammography are obligatory; for men - consultation of the urologist, definition of the DOG and ultrasonography of a prostate.
Studying of oncological diseases in the developed countries is one of the priority fields of medicine today, and in this direction significant progress is achieved. Along with traditional methods of treatment of oncological diseases (surgical removal of a tumor and metastasises, radiation therapy, chemotherapeutic treatment, hormonal therapy), effective methods of physical impact on tumoral fabric are used (a krioablation, laser therapy, the high-intensity focused ultrasound, a hyperthermia, etc.). The perspective direction in oncology is cancer immunotherapy with application of monoclonal antibodies, antineoplastic vaccines, the activated T-lymphocytes etc. Today refer gene therapy, neutron-capture therapy, nanotherapy to the experimental types of treatment of oncological diseases needing further studying and clinical approbation and so forth.
Each patient has to remember that the oncological disease is not a sentence, and at early stages the majority of tumors gives in to full treatment. The large role in a victory over an oncological disease is played by strong-willed efforts of the patient, a moral spirit to a favorable outcome. On the website "Medicine-for-you.com" the most complete description of oncological diseases contains, information on methods of their diagnostics and treatment, the questionnaire of the best specialists oncologists of Moscow, the rating of the lead medical institutions which are successfully dealing with a problem of treatment of an oncopathology is provided.further...