Follicular cyst of an ovary
Follicular cyst of an ovary – the functional retentsionny formation of ovarialny fabric which is formed of not ovulating follicle. In most cases follicular cysts of ovaries clinically are shown by nothing; pains in the bottom of a stomach, a periods delay, infertility are sometimes noted. Diagnosis of a follicular cyst of an ovary provides carrying out a gynecologic research, a dynamic ekhografiya, laparoscopy. Recurrent and persistiruyushchy cysts are subject to treatment: in this case hormonal and anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out. At preservation of a follicular cyst of an ovary or emergence of complications surgical treatment is shown.
Follicular cyst of an ovary
The follicular cyst of an ovary is the good-quality ovarialny education developing from a prepotent follicle for lack of an ovulation. Increase in the sizes of a follicular cyst of an ovary is caused transsudatsiy liquid from blood vessels or its continuing secretion by cages of a granulezny epithelium. Follicular cysts of an ovary generally occur at women of reproductive age, can be formed in a menopause less often or to be congenital. In gynecology they make more than 80% of all cysts of ovaries.
Macroscopically follicular cyst of an ovary has an appearance of round thin-walled single-chamber education with smooth walls and liquid, straw-colored color contents, from 3 to 8 cm in the diameter. Arrangement of a follicular cyst of an ovary unilateral. Follicular cysts of an ovary are never exposed to a malignization and are in most cases resolved independently by the beginning of periods or during 2-3 menstrual cycles.
Reasons of formation of a functional cyst of an ovary
The endocrine and exchange violations leading to a giperestrogeniya and development of a single-phase anovulyatorny menstrual cycle are the cornerstone of pathogenesis of development of a follicular cyst of an ovary. I can promote these violations a physical overstrain and psychoemotional loadings. Quite often the dysfunction of ovaries caused by abortions, nonspecific inflammations (ooforita, adneksita, salpingita), uncontrolled contraception, sharp infections, STD, hyper stimulation of an ovulation at treatment of infertility leads to formation of follicular cysts.
In development of follicular cysts of ovaries in newborns the defining influence of estrogen of mother on the developing fruit, and also hormonal crises of the period of a neonatality is supposed. Follicular cysts of ovaries tend to independent permission – disappearance at restoration of hormonal balance. The gynecology carries repeated episodes of emergence to recurrent follicular cysts of an ovary; in case of lack of regression within more than 2-3 months – to persistiruyushchy cysts.
Symptoms of a follicular cyst of an ovary
Small (to 4-5 cm in the diameter) cysts usually prove nothing and come to light incidentally. Follicular cysts of an ovary of the bigger size (to 8 and more than a cm) can be followed by pains in the bottom of a stomach, feeling of a raspiraniye or weight in inguinal area. The discomfort and pains appear in the second half of a menstrual cycle, often are provoked or amplify at sexual intercourse, physical activity, the sharp movements. A number of patients disturbs an irregularity, a profuseness and duration of periods, emergence of poor intermenstrual allocations.
Existence of a persistiruyushchy follicular cyst of an ovary testifies to a resistant anovulyatorny menstrual cycle therefore can be followed by infertility. If the ovulation occurs in not changed ovary, approach of pregnancy becomes possible. During pregnancy the follicular cyst of an ovary can spontaneously regress or cause serious complications, up to termination of pregnancy.
At a follicular cyst of the big sizes, and also at pregnancy and physical activity there is a probability of a perekrut of a leg of a cyst, a rupture of the capsule, a necrosis of ovarialny fabric, an ovary apopleksiya with development of intra belly bleeding. The clinic of a sharp stomach arising at the same time is characterized by suddenly arising shrill pain, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, weakness, hypotonia, tachycardia, pallor of integuments.
Diagnosis of a follicular cyst of an ovary
Clinical recognition of a follicular cyst of an ovary is made on the basis of a vaginal bryushnostenochnogo of a research, an ekhografiya, a laparoscopy. When carrying out a gynecologic research sideways and kpered from a uterus the tumor of rounded shape having a tugoelastichesky consistence, a smooth surface, low-painful and mobile is palpated.
At ultrasonography scanning the spherical single-chamber education with a diameter from 3 to 8 cm filled with uniform anekhogenny contents is defined. Internal walls of a cyst equal, smooth, have thickness of 1 — 2 mm. Against the background of a follicular cyst sites of intact tissue of ovary are visualized. At a dopplerometriya the sites of a blood-groove with a low speed located on the periphery come to light. The follicular cyst is differentiated from an ovary kistoma. In not clear situations resort to carrying out a diagnostic laparoscopy.
Treatment of a follicular cyst of an ovary
Small (to 5-6 cm in the diameter) follicular cysts of an ovary are, as a rule, resolved independently by the beginning of the following periods or during 2-3 menstrual cycles. In this case for the patient dynamic observation with repeated ultrasonography is established. For stimulation of the return development of a recurrent follicular cyst of an ovary the combined oral contraception, anti-inflammatory therapy, vitamins, homeopathic remedies is appointed. From physiotherapeutic procedures the electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, SMT-forez, is applied.
Surgical removal of a follicular cyst of an ovary is made at a persistiruyushchy form of a disease, the progressing increase in education, diameter of a cyst> 8 cm. In typical cases the laparoscopic vylushchivaniye of a cyst with an ushivaniye of walls or an ovary resection is carried out. In case of complications operation is carried out in the emergency order; at an apopleksiya of an ovary the ooforektomiya or an adneksektomiya is made.
Prevention of a follicular cyst of an ovary
Prevention of formation of a follicular cyst of an ovary requires timely treatment of inflammatory and disgormonalny pathology of ovaries, preventive observation at the gynecologist. At the recidivous course of a cyst identification and elimination of the reason of a pathological state is required.
Conducting the pregnancy proceeding against the background of a follicular cyst of an ovary demands careful tracking of dynamics of a condition of ovarialny education.