Pediculosis - the ektoparazitarny disease of the person caused by different types of louses. Depending on a type of the activator and the place of its parasitizing distinguish a head, pubic and clothes pediculosis. Regardless of a form the pediculosis is followed by a severe itch of skin, a raschesama with sites a moknutiya and crusts, piodermiy. The pediculosis is diagnosed on the basis of visual survey of a hairy part of the head, clothes, parts of the body, pubic area, performing video Dermoscopy. Therapy a pediculosis provides a sbrivaniye or shortening of hair, carrying out processing of affected areas insecticides, disinfecting of next-to-skin and bed linen.
In Russia various forms of a pediculosis according to official figures struck about 3% of the population. But real figures on incidence are tens times higher as not all cases are registered, and not in each region due attention is paid to a pediculosis problem. In those regions where a large number of persons of no fixed abode, visitors and migrants from the unsuccessful countries, incidence of a pediculosis is diagnosed more often than countrywide.
In spite of the fact that the pediculosis is considered a disease to which the asocial contingent is subject, from infection nobody is insured. The head pediculosis meets at children more often, and clothes and pubic at persons who neglect personal hygiene and are not legible in sexual communications.
Pediculus capitis, differently a head louse, is transmitted in the contact and household way through sharing of hairbrushes, carrying others he; head louses from the patient with a pediculosis to the healthy person can be given when using one bed and pillows. Children get into risk group because often violate rules of individual hygiene or know about them not enough.
One head louse for the life is capable to lay off more than one hundred yayits-nits. The female pastes nits to the hair basis chitinous substance; because of grayish-white coloring at people with dark hair of a nit are more noticeable. The pediculosis most often strikes a hairy part of the head, is more rare eyebrows, moustaches, a beard.
Young louses who appear in 5-6 days by third week of the life are ready to reproduction. Head louses are blood-sicking, but they use human blood to reproduce posterity. Their stings are quite painful, and the saliva enzymes getting to a wound at a sting cause an itch. Patients comb the sites struck with a pediculosis, it leads to secondary infections as raschesa serve as entrance gate for gnoyerodny microflora, then the current of a pediculosis is complicated by a piodermiya and other pustulous diseases.
The pediculosis in the absence of treatment takes the started forms – the head of the patient is covered with purulent crusts, hair because of pus stick together in bunches, regionarny lymph nodes increase. At Dermoscopy a large number of nits and adult louses is found.
Clothes louses are much larger than head. They lodge pleated linen, in clothes seams, in the same place and lay eggs nits; parasitize and use the person as the power supply. If on a body there are long pushkovy hair, then on them it is possible to find nits too.
Stings cause the most severe itch, and therefore at a pediculosis of a body linear grazes and raschesa which are complicated by a secondary infection are observed. Clothes louses affect parts of the body most of which often adjoin to clothes, it is area of a back, a neck, a breast, a stomach. After treatment from a pediculosis brown pigmentation remains a long time. At patients who neglect treatment of a pediculosis or in a type of a way of life repeatedly catch it, skin becomes dry, shelled, with existence of scars and sites of a hyperpegmentation.
The pubic pediculosis is caused by a crab-louse (a pubic louse). At objective survey the crab-louse can be found also without magnifying glass, it resembles a crab because of educations superficially in the form of claws by which the louse is attached to skin. The pubic pediculosis strikes inguinal area, perianalny area, patients with gentle and friable skin have a pediculosis caused by crab-louses, can extend on all body where there are pushkovy hair.
The pubic pediculosis by a severe itch and hemorrhagic spots to 5 mm in the diameter is shown. In places of stings when pressing a spot do not disappear, it is connected with the fact that saliva enzymes at interaction with blood hemoglobin, form permanent connection. The pubic pediculosis is transmitted through use of the general bed and at sexual contacts as use of condom does not protect from infection with a pediculosis and itch.
Modern methods of treatment and diagnostics of a pediculosis
Earlier long therapy which assumed numerous contact with the substances irritating skin, such as kerosene and benzylbenzoate was used. But such therapy does not affect nits, and therefore treatment of a pediculosis had to be repeated, or to shave off hair.
Modern methods of treatment are based on application of means which contain in quality of active agent a malateion, pyrethrin, permethrin and . A variety of forms of production of medicines (emulsions, sprays and aerosols) simplicity of their application allow to eliminate a pediculosis quickly. Effect of medicines is based on defeat of neurons of a parasite owing to what there is a death of louses and nits. They have no smell and do not soil clothes that gives a sick pediculosis feeling of psychological comfort during treatment. Usually rather single application, but for bigger confidence in treatment (first of all it is necessary for the patient) double use of medicine is more expedient.
The volume of a bottle and safety of active agent allows to carry out processing of persons, contacting to a sick pediculosis; for family members preventive therapy is obligatory. Along with treatment carry out also processing of things, things or are liable to destruction, or erase them with use of above-mentioned medicines, boil, and several times iron on both sides. In stationary conditions of a thing process an anti-septic tank or autoclave. It is better to carry out treatment of a pediculosis at small children without use of medicines, the good effect gives a simple sbrivaniye of hair or repeated combing of moist hair.
In spite of the fact that usually diagnostics of a pediculosis does not cause difficulties, it is necessary to carry out differentiation with a nodal trikhloklaziya; sometimes mistakenly take the remains of the dried-up varnish and hair gel for nits. Modern methods of diagnostics allow to reduce probability of a psychological trauma at patients, in connection with false diagnosing of a pediculosis. The digital videoskopiya allows the dermatologist to make precisely the diagnosis, and also to reveal pediculosis cases which do not demand treatment (if viable individuals are not found and eggs of nits are opened also empty).
Prevention of a pediculosis
The main prevention of a pediculosis comes down to observance of measures of personal hygiene and if adults, facing such problem, treat a pediculosis as to a usual disease which is transmitted in the contact way then for children the pediculosis can end with deep psychological frustration. Considering that children are subject to infection with a pediculosis most of all, it is necessary to impart them bases of knowledge of personal hygiene, but not to focus attention that a pediculosis – destiny of asocial persons, differently the child can suppress the fact of existence of unpleasant feelings and an itch from adults, being afraid of sneers.
Exception of casual sexual contacts and attentiveness to the choice of places of temporary residence including to child care improving facilities reduce too probability to ache with a pediculosis.