Pigmentary spots – emergence on skin of flat, oval sites of more dark color: from light-to dark brown as a result of aging, insolation of skin, hormonal changes in an organism, reception of some drugs, use of cosmetics. Pigmentary spots, especially multiple, represent a cosmetic shortcoming, often are followed by dryness, skin coarsening, wrinkles, a prostupaniye of vessels. Under pigmentary spots malignant new growths of skin can mask. Before to start decolouration of pigmentary spots, it is necessary to find out whether they are a consequence of serious violations of health. It is for this purpose recommended to undergo consultation of the endocrinologist and therapist, to women - the gynecologist.
Pigmentary spots – emergence on skin of flat, oval sites of more dark color: from light-to dark brown as a result of aging, insolation of skin, hormonal changes in an organism, reception of some drugs, use of cosmetics. Pigmentary spots, especially multiple, represent a cosmetic shortcoming, often are followed by dryness, skin coarsening, wrinkles, a prostupaniye of vessels. Under pigmentary spots malignant new growths of skin can mask.
Pigments, in healthy skin their five are responsible for coloring of skin of the person: melanin, carotene, , oxyhemoglobin and the restored hemoglobin. At violation of their concentration or in the absence of any of pigments on skin pigmentary spots of various size are formed. The main role in coloring of integuments is played by melanin, it serves as a barrier on the way of ultra-violet radiation. As a result of a melanin congestion in large numbers on skin pigmentary spots are also formed, they can be both congenital and acquired.
Reasons of emergence of pigmentary spots
Long and intensive influence of ultraviolet rays as ultraviolet intensifies production of melanin is the main reason for emergence of pigmentary spots. Features of processes of metabolism, a disease of the digestive system, in particular quite often lead pathologies from a liver to emergence of pigmentary spots. Among diseases of endocrine system of a tumor of a hypophysis, hypophysial insufficiency (pangipopituitarizm), a bazedova a disease are followed by pigmentary spots with sites hypo - and hyperpegmentations. Psychological frustration, frequent stresses, shortage of vitamin C, gynecologic diseases and frustration of mentality as isteroidny neurosises can provoke pigmentation violation too, and as result on skin pigmentary spots appear.
The pigmentary spots connected with pregnancy pass in the most part after the delivery, but sometimes they remain for a long time.
Freckles – ephelides are widespread at people with light skin. Their emergence is connected with excessive stay in the sun therefore melanin accumulates in certain sites of skin. Seasonally intensity of their coloring can change. They are observed on a face, sometimes on ears on skin of hands and a breast. The size of freckles, extent of coloring and their quantity are variable: from several light-painted pigmentary spots of the size of a dot prick, to large brown freckles in large numbers.
By the nature pigmentary spots in the form of freckles represent uneven distribution of sites of suntan, and therefore in cold season they can disappear completely. Over time, intensity of their coloring also decreases as the organism learns to accept sunshine more evenly. Freckles do not pose threat for health and many owners of such pigmentary spots do not consider them a cosmetic problem. However, if freckles are the reason of psychological discomfort, then them it is necessary to decolour and use sun-protection means with a high UV filter. It is necessary to remember that such cream and lotions it is necessary to apply on all skin, and not just on the person as redistribution of melanin in skin happens taking into account congestions of melantotsit.
Pigmentary spots like ephelides are not deep, and therefore the chemical peeling with dairy and fruit acids is capable to save from freckles forever. But it is necessary to remember that cosmetology procedures do not change photosensitivity therefore pigmentary spots can appear again if not to use sun-protection means.
Age pigmentary spots
Lentigo (lentigiles seniles) – are pigmentary spots which appear at elderly people, still call them "senile ripples". As a rule, age pigmentary spots appear on places which were exposed to intensive solar radiation. Sometimes age pigmentary spots appear on places of freckles. Favourite localization – face skin, skin of brushes and forearms, a zone of a decollete and an upper back. As the first manifestations arise after forty years, they are obvious cosmetic defect because visually age women. In the period of a menopause because of change of a hormonal background intensity of pigmentary spots and their quantity increase. Lentigo badly give in to masking by means of decorative cosmetics, the chemical and mechanical cosmetology procedures directed to an otsloyka of epidermis help to reduce their intensity. Application of aromatic retinoid is revitalized by cells of skin and normalize their activity.
Large pigmentary spots
The large pigmentary spots called by hloazma or melazmam (chloasma) arise on face skin mainly at young women. Spots have the wrong outlines and are inclined to merge, forming one large spot of a bizzare shape. Process can partially pass to skin of a neck and ears, but shoulders and area of a decollete practically are never surprised. Insolation aggravates conditions of the patient as after stay in the sun increase in pigmentary spots is noted. The main reason for emergence on skin of pigmentary spots like chloasma, is violations of a hormonal background (the beginning of a menstrual cycle, the period of pregnancy and a lactation, a menopause, reception of oral contraceptives and reception of any hormonal medicines).
Some cosmetics, prolonged local use of gormonosoderzhashchy ointments and putting aromatic oils directly can provoke emergence of pigmentary spots to skin also. Usually, after cancellation of medicines or after the delivery a hloazma disappear independently. The cosmetology procedures directed to bleaching and to peeling are capable to accelerate process of disposal of pigmentary spots.
Darling pigmentary spots
Darling pigmentary spots - a nevus (naevus) look as the small exactly outlined sites of a hyperpegmentation which in certain cases are rather an a feature, than cosmetic defect. Process of formation of a nevus practically the same, as when forming any other pigmentary spots, is the cornerstone uneven distribution of melanin. The congestion of melantotsit becomes visually noticeable, coloring of birthmarks is variable from light-beige to dark brown. All people have an insignificant quantity of congenital pigmentary spots, but if excessively there is a lot of them or they tend to growth and increase, then it is one of factors which speak about possible regeneration of a pigmentary spot in oncological process of skin.
Therefore the nevus located in places of friction on a face should be deleted. A significant amount of such pigmentary spots, and also any changes from their party are the indication for their removal too. Usually resort to laser surgery, removal by liquid nitrogen or by means of a diatermokoagulyation. There is no hem left or cosmetic defects after removal of pigmentary spots.
Hypopigmentation of skin
Albinism and vitiligo – are rare pathologies of skin which reasons are a little studied, and therefore pigmentary spots such will hard respond to treatment. Insolation is strictly forbidden people who have a total or partial absence of melantotsit, or states at whom a melantotsita do not produce melanin. Pigmentary spots with the decoloured coloring should be preserved against sunshine. At albinism it is necessary to use contact lenses with protection against ultraviolet. All principles of therapy are directed to improvement of quality of life as solar burns of the hypopigmented pigmentary spots usually quite deep, and continuous impact of sunshine on the unprotected skin can provoke oncological processes.
Treatment of pigmentary spots
Emergence of pigmentary spots, especially those which tend to increase are not a health sign. Therefore before beginning their decolouration, consultation of the therapist, gynecologist and endocrinologist is necessary. If there are states or diseases which could become the reason of pigmentary spots, then first of all treatment or correction is carried out them. Further it is possible to start decolouration of pigmentary spots. House means do not render due effect as depth of their penetration is small, and therefore they influence only skin blankets.
The chemical peeling is ideal option if pigmentary spots there is a lot of, but all of them superficial, for example a freckle. Impact of fruit acids on congestions of melantotsit is resulted by uniform decolouration of face skin. Pigmentary spots gradually disappear, and skin becomes velvety.
Mechanical impact on skin by a dermabraziya is not so effective concerning pigmentary spots. Microminiaturization is similar to a chemical peeling, but active agent is applied pointwise under vacuum. Is suitable for removal insignificant by the size, but deep pigmentary spots.
The mesotherapy allows to enter active agent deep into of fabrics, clarification of pigmentary spots and improvement of the general condition of skin results. And to removal by the laser of pigmentary spots resort to photoremoval at deep spots.
After the procedures the condition of skin is normalized, but it is necessary to use sun-protection cosmetics, in time to make correction of diseases not to allow emergence of new sites with the changed pigmentation.