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Pollinoz ("hay fever") – a complex of seasonal allergic reactions to pollen of plants. The disease is shown by rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, astmoidny bronchitis of allergic character. Also an eye, a nose congestion, cold, sneezing, cough, suffocation, violation of sense of smell, an itch and skin rashes is characterized by puffiness of a mucous nose. Without the corresponding treatment will have the progressing current, can pass into bronchial asthma.

    Pollinoz

    Pollinoz ("hay fever") – a complex of seasonal allergic reactions to pollen of plants. The disease is shown by rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, astmoidny bronchitis of allergic character. Also an eye, a nose congestion, cold, sneezing, cough, suffocation, violation of sense of smell, an itch and skin rashes is characterized by puffiness of a mucous nose. Without the corresponding treatment will have the progressing current, can pass into bronchial asthma.

    As a rule, develops at children's or young age. The disease proceeds cyclically, becomes aggravated during emergence of allergen and passes into a remission stage at its disappearance.

    Risk factors

    Pollinoz develops more often at women (in some regions of Russia every third woman is ill). At villagers it is observed less often. The incidence is influenced by ecological, climatic and geographical factors.

    The crucial role in emergence of a pollinoz belongs to hereditary predisposition. If both parent have allergic diseases, the probability of development of an allergy in the child makes 50% if one – 25% if parents have no allergic diseases – about 10%. The risk of emergence of a pollinoz increases if the child constantly is in early age in the Wednesday polluted by allergens, incorrectly eats or often has viral diseases.

    Reasons of a pollinoz

    Allergic diseases develop at a sensitization (increase in sensitivity) to influence of a certain factor of the external environment. At a pollinoza as such factor pollen of herbs and trees acts. Small pollen only 10-50 microns in size accumulates on skin and mucous membranes of the patient, causing specific reaction of an organism.

    The period of an aggravation of a pollinoz coincides with the period of blossoming of certain trees and herbs. Patients with an allergy to pollen of a hazel grove, an oak, an alder and a birch endure an aggravation of a pollinoz in April and May. In June and July patients at whom the allergy to pollen of cereals developed suffer (herd grasses, a foxtail, a fescue, a wheat grass and a meadow grass). In August and September symptoms of a disease appear at people with an allergy to pollen of an ambrosia, an orach and a wormwood.

    Expressiveness of clinical manifestations depends on weather. In windy dry weather concentration of pollen in air increases, and symptoms of a pollinoz amplify. During rainy wet weather at air there is a small amount of pollen, and displays of a disease become less expressed.

    Symptoms of a pollinoz

    As a rule, develops in two stages. At the first stage there are taking place clinical displays of a disease. Patients complain of feeling of an itch in a nose, a throat, ears and area of a trachea. Eyelids of the patient become edematous and hyperemic. Long attacks of continuous sneezing are characteristic. Appears mucous separated from a nose. The allergic conjunctivitis which is followed by a photophobia, dacryagogue and feeling of sand in eyes develops.

    In 6-8 hours from the moment of influence of allergen there comes the following phase of a pollinoz. Inflammatory reaction amplifies. Separated from eyes becomes purulent. The hyperthermia is possible. Some patients have an urticaria or difficulties of breath caused by bronchial asthma. In some cases can develop Quincke, contact or atopic dermatitis, cystitis or an inflammation of genitalia swelled.

    Pollinoz can be followed by the phenomena of so-called "pollen intoxication" - the fatigue increased by irritability, a loss of appetite, a depression and attacks of migraine. If the patient for any reason swallows pollen (for example, with honey), emergence of nausea and vomiting which are followed by sharp belly-aches is possible.

    Diagnostics of a pollinoz

    The diagnosis "" is exposed on the basis of the characteristic anamnesis (seasonality of aggravations, hereditary predisposition), the given objective survey of the otolaryngologist and additional researches.

    During survey of a nasal cavity (rinoskopiya) hypostasis mucous, narrowing of the nasal courses comes to light. At an instillation in a nose of vasoconstrictive means puffiness of mucous remains. Detection of eosinophils at a research of prints of a mucous membrane of eyes and a nose confirms the allergic nature of a disease. For identification of the concrete allergen which became the reason of development of a pollinoz carry out series of provocative tests and skin .

    Treatment of a pollinoz

    It is necessary to minimize contact with allergen. To the patient pollinozy recommend to reduce stay time on the street, especially – in dry and windy weather. It is not recommended to open windows. It is necessary to use the special air purifiers intended for catching of pollen of plants, to exclude certain products which can become the reason of development of a cross allergy from a diet. At an easy current of a pollinoz to the patient appoint antihistamines (for intake – , , , locally – sprays and ).

    To the patient suffering pollinozy moderate severity recommend to use glucocorticosteroids of local action (nasal sprays , , , , etc.). At bronchial asthma inhalation glyukokortikosteroidny medicines are applied. At the accompanying heavy viral, bacterial, fungal infections and immune violations glucocorticosteroids should be used with care.

    At a heavy current of a pollinoz local glucocorticosteroids combine with antihistaminic medicines of the general action. If the patient is disturbed by the expressed nose congestion, purpose of vasoconstrictive means (naphazoline, a ksilometazolin, an oksimetazolin) no more than a week is possible. It is necessary to remember that prolonged use of similar medicines can lead to development of medicamentous rhinitis. The heavy current of a pollinoz in combination with narrowing of the nasal courses is the indication to surgical treatment. Operation consists in partial removal of nasal sinks and can be carried out by various ways, including with use of the laser and cryodestruction.

    The most effective remedy in fight with pollinozy is the allergenspetsifichesky immunotherapy. The scheme of treatment provides introduction to an organism of the patient of the increasing allergen doses. As a result of treatment sensitivity of an organism of the patient to allergen decreases. The specific immunotherapy can be carried out along with reception of medicines.

    Prevention of a pollinoz

    To patients with pollinozy recommend to take the measures directed to restriction of contact with allergens:

    • If there is an opportunity, for the period of the period of blossoming it is worth going to other climatic zone.
    • The patient categorically do not recommend to go out of town during blossoming.
    • It is better to air the room in wet windless weather. To prevent penetration of allergen into the apartment, on a window it is possible to hang up the moistened dense fabric.
    • Patients with pollinozy should take a shower after arrival from the street.
    • In the period of an aggravation it is recommended to wash out several times a day eyes and to rinse a throat for removal of allergen.
    • Things after washing should not be dried on the street to avoid pollen subsidence.

    Pollinoz - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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