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Rheumatic diseases

Rheumatic diseases include a wide range of the diseases proceeding with primary damage of joints and periartikulyarny fabrics. The special group among them is made by system diseases - the collagenases and vaskulita which are characterized by autoimmune genesis, local or diffusion defeat of connecting fabric. Rheumatic diseases are studied by the specialized section of internal diseases – rheumatology. The course of rheumatic diseases often is followed by polyorgan defeat with development of kardialny, kidney, pulmonary, cerebral syndromes in which treatment not only rheumatologists are involved, but also narrow experts are cardiologists, nephrologists, pulmonologists, neurologists. Rheumatic diseases have the progressing current, break functional activity of the patient and can lead to an invalidization.

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Rheumatic diseases

Rheumatic diseases include a wide range of the diseases proceeding with primary damage of joints and periartikulyarny fabrics. The special group among them is made by system diseases - the collagenases and vaskulita which are characterized by autoimmune genesis, local or diffusion defeat of connecting fabric. Rheumatic diseases are studied by the specialized section of internal diseases – rheumatology. The course of rheumatic diseases often is followed by polyorgan defeat with development of kardialny, kidney, pulmonary, cerebral syndromes in which treatment not only rheumatologists are involved, but also narrow experts are cardiologists, nephrologists, pulmonologists, neurologists. Rheumatic diseases have the progressing current, break functional activity of the patient and can lead to an invalidization.

Such rheumatic diseases as gout and arthritis, are known since the time of the Ancient Greek Aesculapian Hippocrates. In the 2nd century AD the Roman philosopher and the surgeon Galen entered the term "rheumatism" which designated the most various diseases of the musculoskeletal device. And only in the XVIII-XIX century of century descriptions of separate rheumatic diseases began to appear. Now, according to the American rheumatologic society, there are over 200 types of rheumatic pathology.

Depending on primary defeat, all variety of rheumatic diseases can be divided into three big groups: diseases of joints, system vaskulita and diffusion diseases of connecting fabric. Diseases of joints are presented, mainly, by arthritises (rheumatoid, psoriatichesky, gouty, jet, infectious and so forth), and also osteoarthrosis, Bekhterev's disease, rheumatic diseases of circumarticular soft fabrics. Treat group of system vaskulit hemorrhagic vaskulit, nodular periarteriit, Wegener, Horton's disease, Gudpascher's syndrome, Takayasu's disease obliterating trombangiit. Diffusion diseases of connecting fabric, or system diseases, are presented by a system red volchanka, a sklerodermiya, dermatomiozity, Shegren's disease, Sharp's syndrome, etc. Separately in classification of rheumatic diseases there is rheumatism at which there is a simultaneous rheumatic damage of joints, connecting fabric and vessels.

Now the etiology of rheumatic diseases is considered from a position of the multifactorial concept according to which their development is explained by interaction of genetic, vneshnesredovy and endocrine factors. At the same time the genetic factor acts as contributing, and vneshnesredovy and endocrine – as the making, starting moments. The infections caused by Epstein-Barre's viruses, a cytomegalic inclusion disease, simple herpes, picornaviruses, etc. act as the most frequent provocative factors of rheumatic diseases; intoxications, stresses, insolation, overcooling, injuries, vaccination; pregnancy, abortions. As the uniting pathogenesis links for all rheumatic diseases serve violation of an immune homeostasis and development of heavy immunoinflammatory process in connecting fabric, the microcirculator course and joints.

Rheumatic diseases occur among patients of various age groups, including among children and teenagers (for example, arthritises at children, rheumatism at children, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, soyedinitelnotkanny a dysplasia and so forth). Nevertheless, the peak of incidence is the share of mature age – of 45 years and is more senior. Some rheumatic diseases develop at persons of a certain sex more often: so, system diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, a rheumatic polimialgiya are more characteristic of women, and here gout, psoriatichesky arthritis, ankiloziruyushchy spondilit usually affect men.

Clinical displays of rheumatic diseases are extremely various and changeable, however it is possible to allocate certain symptomatic markers in the presence of which it is necessary to get advice of the rheumatologist immediately. Treat the main of them: long causeless fever, artralgiya, swelling and change of a configuration of joints, morning constraint of movements, muscle pains, skin rash, lymphadenitis, tendency to thromboses or hemorrhages, multiple damage of internals. System diseases often mask under diseases of skin, blood, musculoskeletal system, an oncopathology with which demand differentiation first of all.

The significant progress was outlined in diagnostics and treatment of rheumatic diseases in recent years that is connected with development of genetics, immunology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology etc. The basis for statement of the right diagnosis is made by the immunological researches allowing to reveal the antibodies corresponding to a certain nosology. Also for diagnosis of rheumatic diseases the X-ray analysis, ultrasonography, KT, MPT, a stsintigrafiya, an arthroscopy, a biopsy are widely used.

Unfortunately, today full treatment of rheumatic diseases is impossible. Nevertheless, the modern medicine is in most cases capable to help to facilitate the course of a disease, to prolong remission, to avoid invalidiziruyushchy outcomes and heavy complications. Treatment of rheumatic diseases is long, sometimes lifelong process also consists of medicamentous therapy, non-drug methods, orthopedic treatment and rehabilitation. The basis of therapy of the majority of rheumatic diseases is made by basic anti-inflammatory medicines, glucocorticosteroids and biological medicines. The essential part in complex therapy is assigned to extracorporal haemo correctiona plasma exchange, haemo sorption, a tsitaferez, a plazmosorbtion and so forth. Such non-drug ways of treatment rheumatic bolezyony as physical therapy, the balneoterapiya, LFK, acupuncture, a kinezioterapiya, allow to raise the functional status of patients considerably. Orthopedic treatment (ortezirovaniye, surgical correction of function of joints, endoprosthesis replacement) is shown, mainly, in the late period of a revmopatologiya for improvement of quality of life of patients.

Prevention of rheumatic diseases has nonspecific character. For their prevention it is important to avoid provocative factors (stresses, infections, other loads of an organism), to pay sufficient attention to physical activity and care of the health, to exclude addictions. Rapid development of medical technologies allows to hope for the fastest permission of the not clear questions concerning emergence and the course of rheumatic diseases.

On pages of our medical reference book rheumatic and system diseases are allocated in the independent section. Here you can get acquainted with the main diseases of a rheumatic profile, the reasons of their emergence, symptomatology, the advanced methods of diagnostics, modern views on treatment.

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