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Rhinitis (cold) – inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of a cavity of a nose. It is shown by hypostasis and a congestion of a nose, office from a nose of a plentiful mucous secret, burning, tickling and a scratching in a nasal cavity, deterioration in sense of smell. The sharp form of rhinitis can pass in chronic that leads to disorder of respiratory function and changes in lungs and heart. Distribution of an inflammation on other departments of respiratory system, development of sinusitis, otitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia is possible.

    Rhinitis

    Rhinitis (cold) – inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of a cavity of a nose. It is shown by hypostasis and a congestion of a nose, office from a nose of a plentiful mucous secret, burning, tickling and a scratching in a nasal cavity, deterioration in sense of smell. The sharp form of rhinitis can pass in chronic that leads to disorder of respiratory function and changes in lungs and heart. Distribution of an inflammation on other departments of respiratory system, development of sinusitis, otitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia is possible.

    There is a large number of the reasons causing rhinitis, and a set of classifications of this disease, and some classifications contain tens of subspecies of rhinitis. In most cases rhinitis is one of displays of the general disease.

    Mechanism of development of rhinitis

    The cavity of a nose performs several functions. It warms, humidifies and partially purifies the inhaled air. The inflammation of a mucous cavity of a nose develops as a result of influence of one or several adverse factors. Bacteria and viruses, dust, cold air, allergens, the irritating substances etc. can become the reason of rhinitis. Regardless of the reason of development of a disease, inflammatory process in a nasal cavity at rhinitis has common features.

    In a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity there is a large number of blood vessels. At rhinitis blood circulation is broken, develops in cavities of a nose stagnation of blood. A liquid part of blood propotevat through a vascular wall in surrounding fabrics. Mucous cavities of a nose swells, complicating nasal breath. As a result of inflammatory process a large number of separated appears.

    Sharp rhinitis

      Sharp rhinitis has the infectious nature, is caused by viruses or bacteria. The probability of development of sharp rhinitis increases at decrease in resistance of an organism as a result of overcooling.

    The disease proceeds in three stages. In the beginning the patient with rhinitis is disturbed by an itch and feeling of tension in a nasal cavity. There is a sneezing, dacryagogue. The first stage of sharp rhinitis can be followed by a headache, a general malaise, temperature increase. Proceeds from several hours to one-two days.

    The second stage of a disease is followed by a nose congestion, difficulty of nasal breath, plentiful watery allocations, twang and decrease in sense of smell. At the third stage of sharp rhinitis of allocation become dense, mucopurulent, their quantity decreases, at the same time the patient is still disturbed by a nose congestion.

    Sharp rhinitis proceeds 7-10 days. As a rule, comes to an end with recovery. Sometimes passes into chronic rhinitis. Can be complicated by pharyngitis, laryngitis, an inflammation of additional bosoms (antritis, frontity, etmoidity), average otitis, bronchitis and pneumonia.

    Treatment of sharp rhinitis includes medicamentous therapy, the thermal and distracting procedures (mustard plasters on area of calves, Ural federal district of soles, foot bathtubs). For simplification of nasal breath appoint local vasoconstrictive means (naphazoline, , ephedrine). Antibiotics are shown only at sharp bacterial rhinitis. At viral rhinitises antibacterial therapy is useless.

    Chronic rhinitises

    Chronic rhinitises – big group of diseases which can be caused by the different reasons differ on a clinical current and demand various approach to therapy.

    Catarrhal rhinitis

    The reasons of catarrhal rhinitis – decrease in the immune status, frequent catarrhal diseases, high level of pollution of the inhaled air. Catarrhal rhinitis often develops at chronic diseases of ENT organs (pharyngitis, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis). Moderate difficulty of nasal breath, decrease in sense of smell, mucous allocations from a nose cavity is characteristic of catarrhal rhinitis. Patients note simplification of nasal breath at change of a pose or physical activity. On a rinoskopiya hyperaemia of a mucous membrane comes to light.

    At treatment of catarrhal rhinitis it is necessary to eliminate whenever possible the adverse factors provoking development of a disease. Treatment, generally local. Apply astringents (solutions of a protargol or kollargol), antibacterial ointments, "a nasal shower", instillations of anti-septic tanks, a tube quartz, an electrophoresis, UVCh. At inefficiency of conservative therapy carry out cryodestruction or cauterization of a mucous cavity of a nose trikhloruksusny acid.

    Hypertrophic rhinitis

    Growth of connecting fabric in a nasal cavity is characteristic of this form of chronic rhinitis. Mainly back and lower end of an average and lower nasal sink is surprised. Hypertrophic rhinitis can develop at adenoides, chronic sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, constant chemical irritation of a mucous nasal cavity. Development of chronic rhinitis is promoted by a hypertension and abuse of alcohol.

    Patients with hypertrophic rhinitis are disturbed by a nose congestion which can be constant and pronounced. Violation of nasal breath becomes the cause of headaches, decrease in sense of smell and hearing, twang of a voice. On a rinoskopiya the otolaryngologist reveals narrowing of the nasal courses and increase in nasal sinks.

    Hypertrophic rhinitis is the indication to surgical treatment. As a rule, carry out cryodestruction or cauterization of a mucous membrane. At the expressed hypertrophy the konkhotomiya (partial or full removal of the lower nasal sink) is carried out.

    Atrophic rhinitis

    In a mucous membrane processes of an atrophy prevail. The reasons of atrophic rhinitis are up to the end not clear. It is considered that the disease can be provoked by adverse climate, frequent sharp rhinitises, professional vrednost (silicate, tobacco and cement dust) and extensive operations in a nasal cavity. There is a hereditary predisposition to development of atrophic rhinitis.

    Atrophic rhinitis is shown by dryness and formation of crusts in a nose, feeling of tightening, insignificant periodic nasal bleedings. At distribution of an atrophy on olfactory area decrease or loss of sense of smell is possible. On a rinoskopiya the opaque, dry, pale mucous membrane covered with yellowish or greenish thin crusts is visible.

    Treatment of atrophic rhinitis conservative. The softening, disinfecting and irritating ointments and drops (dogrose oil, fresh juice of an aloe, Ayevit (oil solution of vitamins E and And), physical therapy are locally applied. The general treatment includes reception of biogenous stimulators (group B vitamins, extract of a placenta, FIBS, aloe extract).

    Ozena (fetid atrophic rhinitis)

    The reasons of development of this form of rhinitis are up to the end not studied. There is an infectious theory (defeat of klebsiyelly) and the theory of hereditary predisposition to development of an ozena. The sharp atrophy mucous, dense allocations which shrink in fetid crusts is characteristic of fetid atrophic rhinitis. At fetid rhinitis thinning of a bone tissue of walls of a nose and nasal sinks is often observed.

    Patients complain of a nose congestion, a painful itch and dryness in a nose, violation of sense of smell, the expressed putrefactive smell, noticeable for people around. On a rinoskopiya thick dark green crusts under which there is dense putreform separated come to light. At an atrophy of a bone tissue the nasal cavity is expanded.

    Treatment is conservative. For removal of crusts the nasal cavity is washed out hydroxymethylquinoxalinedioxide solution, weak solutions of permanganate of potassium or peroxide of hydrogen. After washing enter tampons with antibacterial ointments into a nasal cavity. Antibiotic treatment is carried out.

    Vasomotorial rhinitis

    Vasomotorial rhinitis develops at a number of the diseases and states which are followed by violation of a tone of a vascular wall (an asteno-vegetative syndrome, hypotonia, neurocirculator dystonia, some endocrine diseases). Violation of a tone of vessels of nasal sinks becomes the reason of an alternate congestion of the nasal courses. Decrease in sense of smell at vasomotorial rhinitis, as a rule, does not develop.

    The choice of a technique of treatment depends on the main disease. Physiotreatment and a hardening at this form of rhinitis are inefficient. Intra nasal blockade, introduction of glucocorticosteroids and skleroziruyushchy medicines are successfully applied. Perhaps expeditious treatment (laser photodestruction, ulrazvukovy disintegration, galvanoakustika, submucous vazotomiya).

    Medicamentous rhinitis

    The disease is provoked by reception of a number of medicines (neuroleptics, tranquilizers, medicines for decrease HELL) or long use of vasoconstrictive drops in a nose. Treatment consists in replacement or cancellation of medicine.

    Rhinitis - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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