Seborrhea of a hairy part of the head is the inflammatory disease caused by increase in office of skin fat and change of its structure. The main display of seborrhea is the thickening of a horn layer accompanying with an itch and a peeling. If seborrhea accepts a chronic current, then at a part of patients the hair loss is noted. Carry a head skin peeling, inflammatory changes (reddening, puffiness), a skin itch to displays of seborrhea. Distinguish dry and fat seborrhea. Diagnosis of a disease is carried out by the dermatologist or the trichologist. Treatment consists in correction of the causal factors which provoked development of seborrhea, observance of the correct diet and diet, if necessary antifungal therapy is carried out.
Seborrhea – the disease of a hairy part of head skin connected with the raised salootdeleniye, display of seboreyny dermatitis. Seborrhea can proceed on two types: dry and fat. At dry seborrhea thinning, fragility and fragility of hair, an itch, a skin peeling, emergence of a large number of dandruff is observed. At fat seborrhea – the hair shining, slovenly, dandruff in the form of yellowish plaques, a severe itch. Seborrhea leads to the section and a hair loss, sometimes to persistent baldness.
Reasons of development of seborrhea
There is no uniform pathogenetic reason of seborrhea. It arises at a combination of genetic predisposition, violation of processes of metabolism and adverse environmental conditions. Changes of a hormonal background of natural character (pregnancy, the pubertatny and preclimacteric periods) and pathological conditions of endocrine system (diabetes, pathologies of gonads and a thyroid gland) often are followed by the seborrhea phenomena.
Pityrosporum ovale – a drozhzhepodobny fungus which is found in 90% of the population is recognized as the main pathogenetic component in development of seborrhea today. Normal head skin microflora for 30-40% consists of mushrooms of the sort P. Ovale. However under the influence of adverse factors its quantity increases, at seborrhea it makes up to 60% of all microorganisms. Seborrhea is promoted by loss of control over growth of pitirosporovy mushrooms, it occurs at decrease in protective functions of skin. The greatest concentration of mushrooms is observed around sebaceous glands as their secret is used for growth and development of colonies.
The fact that the phenomena of seborrhea are caused by violations of work of endocrine glands is confirmed by the fact that the intensive growth of pitirosporovy mushrooms is observed at change of the chemical composition of skin fat which normal has antiseptic properties.
As WHO it is recognized that the most powerful factors in pathogenesis of seborrhea is the combination of neurogenetic, hormonal and immune pathologies. Because a recurrence of seborrhea is celebrated during stresses and at various diseases of nervous system. High predisposition to seborrhea of a hairy part of the head and smooth skin is noted at paralysis of cranial nerves, paralyzes of a trunk and at Parkinson's disease.
Importance of immunodeficiencies in formation of chronic seborrhea is confirmed by statistical data that incidence of seborrhea among clinically healthy people of 8 cases on each 100 people of the population whereas HIV-positive people have an incidence of 36% of total number, and seborrhea is diagnosed for patients with AIDS in 80% of cases.
The modern trikhologiya considers that irrational correction of dandruff, aggressive hairdresser's procedures, neglect as measures of personal hygiene and vice versa their excessive application can serve in development of seborrhea by risk factors.
Clinical displays of seborrhea
The head skin peeling which is followed by inflammatory reaction is characteristic of seborrhea. At a classical current the occipital area and border of growth of hair is symmetrically involved in process at first. If seborrhea not to treat, then it passes to smooth skin. In eyelashes, eyebrows, a beard and moustaches of the phenomenon of seborrhea are noted at 5-10% of patients.
First of all at seborrhea on head skin there are small white scales, the most part of patients complains of a skin itch. The option of a current is called dry seborrheas. At timely diagnosing it well gives in to therapy.
In the absence of treatment sebaceous glands begin to work more actively, all new areas are involved in process. Irregular washing of the head also leads to progressing of seborrhea, and the peeling becomes expressed.
The long course of seborrhea is characterized by existence of the centers of an inflammation in the form of red spots and plaques on skin which are covered with a thick layer of scales or scales crusts, because of having combed crusts can be bloody. The skin itch becomes obviously expressed, and process passes to smooth skin, raschesa lead to accession of a secondary piokokkovy infection and emergence of piodermiya.
Fat seborrhea is clinically shown by existence of large light-yellowish scales which densely cover all head skin, at forcibly peeling of painful feelings the pink slightly inflamed skin is not noted, bared. As cells of epidermis unripe, they are fully not capable to perform the functions, and therefore skin thin, is quickly injured and infected. After a slushchivaniye of scales at seborrhea the site of skin quickly becomes covered again by them. Because of the increased fat content of a scale stick together, hair become grease and slovenly by sight. Hair stick together and even at regular washing quickly become soiled.
Physical and emotional activities, differences of temperatures cause strengthening of clinical displays of seborrhea. On all mass of indumentum existence of horn scales is noted. Over time also the structure of hair changes, they become thinner, drop out, become fragile and are stratified on the ends. In spite of the fact that at seborrhea fat content of head skin increases, after washing the feeling of tightening is noted. It is caused by head skin dehydration therefore application of means which dry skin only promote a peeling and compensatory increase in a salootdeleniye.
Diagnostics and treatment of seborrhea
Diagnose seborrhea on clinical manifestations on consultation of the trichologist. Besides it is necessary to establish the reason of its emergence therefore at seborrhea investigate a hormonal background, conduct examination at the neurologist, exclude pathologies of digestive tract and immunodeficiency.
Carrying out correction of the main reasons is reduced considerably by displays of seborrhea, but local impact on head skin in addition is necessary. Specific antifungal treatment is more expedient, than use of anti-inflammatory hormonal therapy which was given preference at treatment of seborrhea earlier.
Observance of a diet, with an exception of fat, fried, sweet and salty products is obligatory. At seborrhea it is necessary to include products in a diet rich with cellulose, group B vitamins, zinc. Vitamin complexes with beer yeast and vitamin U at prolonged use promote improvement of a condition of head skin. As at seborrhea of one medical lotions and shampoos it is not enough, resort to rubbing in in head skin of the medicines containing zinc, and tar. At knocking over of a recurrence of seborrhea pass to preventive use of shampoos for treatment of the hair incorporating these substances.
The heavy current a disease demands use of keratolitichesky medicines, for example Salicylic acid and tar. If scales densely cover skin, then soften them by means of vaseline or other oils and after removal apply the anti-fungal medicines containing nizorat and as active agent. Hormonal medicines for treatment of seborrhea connect only in case of inefficiency of antifungal therapy, however gormonosoderzhashchy ointments are not the main component in the scheme of treatment.
Physiotherapy allows to improve microcirculation and an otsloyka of epidermis. At seborrhea cryomassage of head skin and a darsonvalization during which follicles are stimulated that promotes growth of hair is shown. Due to disinfecting effect, scratches and microinjuries are dried. Darsonvalization possesses the calming impact on head skin thanks to which there passes the itch noted at all patients with seborrhea.
After elimination of clinical manifestations it is necessary to use about two more months medical shampoos as clinical recovery does not speak about suppression of pathogenic microflora. And, depending on the general condition of an organism, it is necessary to use medical shampoos 1-2 times a month to prevent a seborrhea recurrence. Patients with seborrhea should change hair and head skin care products with care. Excessive use of staylinogvy means, a chemical wave, hair-dyeing and frequent drying by the hair dryer is also not recommended to them.