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Aging of skin

The mankind long since looks for the recipe of eternal youth and tries to create beauty elixir. Thanks to technical progress, achievements of science and centuries-old experience of medical practice many fatal diseases were won, and average life expectancies of people steadily increases. However, process of aging remains urgent and continues to interest both scientists, and practicians. The first signs of aging are noted on a face, even when all of an organism is in good physical shape. Often, chronological (recorded by passport data) and biological (determined by a state and functional to characteristics of rather srednestatisticheky norm) age do not coincide.

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Aging of skin

The mankind long since looks for the recipe of eternal youth and tries to create beauty elixir. Thanks to technical progress, achievements of science and centuries-old experience of medical practice many fatal diseases were won, and average life expectancies of people steadily increases. However, process of aging remains urgent and continues to interest both scientists, and practicians. The first signs of aging are noted on a face, even when all of an organism is in good physical shape. Often, chronological (recorded by passport data) and biological (determined by a state and functional to characteristics of rather srednestatisticheky norm) age do not coincide.

Skin is a protective barrier to all organism and meets by the first aggressive influence of the environment. In this unequal fight skin loses moisture, becomes thinner, loses ability to regeneration (restoration). Fibroblasta – a cage terms – gradually stop production of collagen why elasticity of fibers decreases. Skin very thinly feels and immediately reacts to the slightest hormonal signal of an organism. Age fluctuations of a hormonal background lead to changes of exchange processes in hypodermic fatty tissue, decrease in a muscular tone. Repeatedly repeating solar radiation causes photoageing of open sites of skin. Gradually skin grows old, on its surface various wrinkles develop: static, caused by decrease in a muscular tone; mimic – from frequent reduction of muscles at these or those emotions; gravitational, arising as a result of terrestrial gravitation.

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Natural and presenilation

The aging happening owing to natural physiological processes is called a hronostareniye or chronological aging. Presenilation of skin carries the name "hormonal aging.

The biological age and speed of development of processes of aging are predetermined genetically, being programmed at the cellular level. Natural aging – inevitable and irreversible process, its natural development cannot be stopped. Presenilation gives in to adjustment, it can resist since it is caused by subjective factors: way of life and food, environment factors, ultra-violet radiation, various diseases and so forth. Early wrinkles can develop in 18-20 years. They marked out fans actively to express the emotions at which all experiences "are written" on a face: the cramped eyebrows, the wrinkled nose, the blinked eyes. Being reduced, the mimic muscles located under skin collect skin in certain places in the smallest folds. Gradually mimic muscles "are tired" of repeated reduction, over time lose ability to full relaxation, and skin loses elasticity and a former look. There is a formation of premature wrinkles: small skin folds are fixed in persistent deep wrinkles.

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External signs of aging of skin

Signs of aging have different external manifestations depending on a stage and type of aging.

The first type of aging – "a tired face". Elasticity of soft facial tissues and a neck goes down, there is a puffiness, the nasolabial fold is sharply expressed, mouth corners are lowered. After rest and a full-fledged dream well rested skin looks younger, and by the evening signs of aging are considerably shown, the person looks tired.

The second type of aging – "wrinkled face". The face and a neck are speckled by small wrinkles, skin dry. In corners of eyes "goose pads" are noticeable, the upper lip and a chin are noted "corrugation" from wrinkles, wrinkles of the upper and lower eyelid are brightly expressed.

The third type of aging – "a double chin" and "the drooped cheeks". Deformation of soft facial tissues and a neck, change of a face form, surplus of skin folds on the upper and lower eyelid is observed. This type represents the phenomena of senile deformation. People at whom even at young age considerable expressiveness of a hypodermic and fatty layer is noted are subject to this type of aging.

The fourth type – combining above and above the listed signs: the lowered elasticity of skin, the expressed rugosity of the person and neck, deformation of face contours.

The fifth type – brawny, is more often observed at representatives of Central Asia, Mongolia and Japan. At this type face muscles are more developed, and the hypodermic and fatty layer is expressed in much smaller degree. At people of this type wrinkles around eyes are observed large and small ("goose pads"). At later stages aging is shown by a smoothness of a face form and expressiveness of a nasolabial fold.

To keep and prolong youth of skin it is necessary to carry out preventive measures for care of it and methods of correction of the designated aging signs. At the same time it is necessary to define correctly type of the skin, type and a stage of aging. It is possible to examine receptions on care of the corresponding type of skin and to carry out them independently in house conditions. For preservation of youth of normal skin maintenance of its natural balance suffices. Dry skin requires to itself closer attention and care: it is necessary to provide sufficient moisture content and food of skin. For fat skin careful clarification, use of the means correcting the increased sekretorny activity of sebaceous glands, measures for protection against infection of skin are required. For each type of skin in house conditions it is necessary to provide clarification, toning, moistening, food, protection.

There is also other, more effective way of prevention of aging of skin – to trust in experience of professionals. In specialized institutions the growing old skin will be restored by efforts of cosmetologists to life.

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Theories of aging of skin

The reasons and mechanisms of aging always interested mankind. It is connected with the natural aspiration of people to keep the health and youth as long as possible. In modern science there is no consensus on an aging problem. Today several theories which sometimes can contradict each other are offered at once, and at times supplement. Again opened scientific facts allow to get into an aging process essence more and more deeply every year.


This group of theories is based on a hypothesis according to which genetic changes in DNA structures of cages are the cornerstone of process of aging. This group of theories gained the greatest distribution in gerontological science.

Among molecular and genetic theories there is also no unity. Part of them consider that age aging is programmed genetically. Others hold the opinion on the mutational nature of aging. In other words, process of aging can be regarded or as natural result of natural development of an organism, or as manifestation of casual mutations, failures in genetic system of storage of information.

Telomerny theory

The American gerontologist L. Heyflik in 1961 made discovery in the field of cell fission studying. During the experiments Heyflik came to a conclusion that fibroblasta (the cell of connecting fabric which are responsible for collagen formation) are in vitro capable to division no more than 50 times. On the author this phenomenon received the name of "Heyflik's limit". Then a scientific explanation for this opening it was offered not.

10 years later, in 1971 the Soviet biochemist A. M. Olovnikov assumed that "Heyflik's limit" can be explained with shortening of telomeres – the ends of chromosomes at each division. Telomeres are shortened after each doubling of a chromosome, and at some point there comes the limit of their shortening. Without having an opportunity to share, the cage gradually loses the viability. Explains with this circumstance cell aging the telomerny theory.

Discovery in 1985 of the special enzyme of a telomeraza capable to complete the ends of chromosomes of sexual and tumor cells and to provide their infinite division, confirmed the telomerny theory of Olovnikov. The extreme number of divisions is unequal at different cages: for example, stem cells in a live organism are capable to share tens of thousands of times. However direct dependence of cell aging on shortening of telomeres is conventional today.

For example, fibroblasta of a hand of the newborn person are capable to division of 50 times, for the 40-year-old person the limit of cell fission makes 40 times, and for 90-year-old – 30 times. Meanwhile, the more average life expectancy of this or that species, the is more cell fission limit. So, for the Galápagos turtle living about 175 years, Heyflik's limit is equal to 130.

Heyflik's limit proves fidelity of the telomerny theory. However, the age of approach of the actual biological death in practice is much lower than the age which is theoretically proved by the telomerny theory. According to the theory, in the last, 50th time of a cell of the person have to share at the age of 250-300 years, but still any person did not live up to this age.

Further searches of the answer to a question of the aging reason, led Olovnikov to promotion of several more theories of aging – redusomny and lunogravitatsionny, however today any of them did not receive either experimental justification, or approval of scientists.

Elevatsionny (ontogenetichesky) theory of aging

At a boundary of the 1950th the Leningrad professor - the gerontologist V. M. Dilman stated and proved a hypothesis of the uniform mechanism of regulation of the processes of age aging happening in an organism. Dilman called the hypothalamus regulating activity of endocrine system, chief "conductor" of development and aging of an organism. Dilman's theory received the name of elevatio elevatsionny (Latin – rise, development).

According to this theory, as the main reason of aging serves decrease in reactivity of a hypothalamus to signals of nervous and endocrine systems. It was confirmed with results during the laboratory experiments and clinical trials made in the 1960-1980th years. Decrease in a regulatory role of a hypothalamus leads to age oppression of functions of the gipotalamo-hypophysial nadpochechnikovoy systems (GHNS). GGNS controls development by bark of adrenal glands of the glucocorticoid hormones called by "stress hormones". Continuous increase of these hormones in blood forces an organism to adapt to a condition of a stress gradually. Dilman called this state "giperadaptozy" or "an aging disease".

On Dilman's theories, process of aging and the diseases arising in connection with it are costs of development of an organism – ontogenesis. Dilman's opening allowed to look at questions of aging and prevention of the age diseases which are the main causes of death of elderly people in a new way: cardiovascular pathology, malignant tumors, strokes, atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity, mental depression, autoimmune diseases etc. Thus, a conclusion follows from the elevatsionny (ontogenetichesky) theory that natural aging and the related diseases can be delayed if at the certain level of ontogenesis to stabilize self-control of an organism (homeostasis). According to V. M. Dilman, having slowed down aging processes, it is possible to increase specific life expectancy.

Adaptation and regulatory theory

The theory of the Ukrainian physiologist and gerontologist V. V. Frolkis developed in 1960-1970, considers aging and death as genetically caused program.

In the theory V. V. Frolkis considers duration of life cycle as balance of two processes: natural aging of an organism and its "anti-aging" (Latin "", vita – life, auctum – increase). Allows to support process of "anti-aging" viability of an organism, adaptation to the happening changes, to increase life expectancy. Frolkis's theory gained wide recognition at the international level. On this subject in the USA in 1995 there passed the first congress with participation of scientists-gerontologists of the whole world.

As primary mechanism of aging V. V. Frolkis made a gene regulatory hypothesis. According to it, violation of work of regulatory genes involves change of activity of structural genes and, as a result, change of amount of the protein synthesized by them, aging and death of a cage. V. V. Frolkis explains with violation of the gene regulatory mechanism emergence of widespread types of age diseases: cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases.

Activation or suppression of activity of certain genes is the cornerstone of development of this or that pathology and the mechanism of aging in general. Leaning on these conclusions, the gene regulatory therapy designed to prevent the genetic disorders influencing development of age diseases was offered.


Stochastic or probabilistic theories explain aging as result of the mutational changes happening at the DNA level. Casual mutations collect in chromosomes and repeatedly are reproduced at cell fission.

Theory of free radicals

Scientists D. Harman and N. Emanuel practically in at one time (respectively v1956 and in 1958) put forward the theory which received the name of the theory of free radicals. By means of this theory they explain both the principle of the mechanism of aging, and developing of many age diseases: cardiovascular pathology, cataract, decrease in immunity, violation of brain activity, cancer, etc. "Responsible" for the pathological changes happening in an organism D. Harman and N. Emanuel free radicals – the oxygen molecules participating in many biochemical processes in cages call.

Free radicals represent unstable particles with a missing electron therefore in search of the missing particle they react with healthy molecules, taking away from them an electron and turning them into free radicals. Owing to chain reaction of formation of free radicals in an organism there is a damage of cages and violation of its biochemical balance. Also harmful exogenous factors can cause education of free radicals: ultra-violet radiation, the polluted air, nicotine, etc.

Free radicals strike the first blow to skin, provoking emergence of wrinkles, rashes, inflammation signs, but also, development more than 60 various diseases and aging.

In skin is the strongest collagen – the protein giving to skin elasticity and elasticity suffers from free radicals. Free radicals cause biochemical changes – formation of the cross communications interfering free movement of molecules of collagenic fibers relatively each other. Molecules of collagen are accustomed to drinking in bunches, lose elasticity and gain rigidity that is shown by signs of aging of skin.

The reasons starting the mechanism of harmful effects of free radicals in skin are various, but the most artful is impact on ultraviolet skin. Sunshine stimulate education of free radicals and production of the proteins-enzymes destroying fats with formation of arakhidonovy acid. Arakhidonovy acid causes formation of the molecules promoting an inflammation and aging of skin. And free radicals, in turn, make active in cages special molecules - so-called, copying factors.

Factors of copying are neutral molecules, but if they are exposed to activation from free radicals, then begin to migrate to a cage kernel. In a kernel, being built in DNA, factors of copying cause synthesis of toxic substances. The factor of copying of NFk-B causes inflammatory processes in a cage and accelerates its aging. The factor of copying of AR-1 leads to collagen destruction, formation of microdefects and wrinkles in skin.

Free radicals can damage DNA and RNA of cages, lipids, fats. In cages there is a protective mechanism from aggression of free radicals - it is superoxide dismutase enzymes, etc. Antioxidant (neutralizing free radicals) the substances used with food possess action: vitamins (And, E, C), vegetables, fruit, green tea, coffee, etc. However, surplus of antioxidants is capable to cause in an organism opposite reaction – strengthening of oxidizing intracellular processes.

Theory of accident of mistakes

In 1954 the American physicist M. Stsillard made a hypothesis of the mutational nature of aging or "aging by mistake". Studying action of ionizing radiation on different types of live organisms, he came to a conclusion that radiation reduces life expectancy of animals and people. It leads to development of mutations in DNA and causes aging signs: diseases, a gray hair etc. Stsilard came to a conclusion that mutations are the reason of aging of species, but could not explain the mechanism of aging of the live organisms which were not exposed to radiation.

After Stsilard the researcher L. Orgel considered mutations in living cells not only as result of influence of external aggressors (ultra-violet and ionizing radiation, free radicals, toxic influence of viruses and other mutagen agents), but also as spontaneous process. That is mistakes in the genetic device of cages can be caused by both the external, and internal reasons. They involve violation of functions of cages and all organism, lead to their aging and death.

Theory of apoptosis (suicide of cages)

The theory of cellular apoptosis (from Greek "a leaf fall) which is put forward by the academician V. P. Skulachev considers death of cages as the inevitable, programmed process. To keep integrity of an organism, each cage, having lost the viability, has to die and give way to new. Infection with a virus or mutations, defiant diseases and an ozlakochestvleniye, become a signal to "suicide" of cages not to endanger death all organism.

Unlike violent death of cages as a result of burns, injuries, a hypoxia, poisonings etc. at apoptosis the struck cages independently break up to structural fragments and are used by other cages as construction material.

V. P. Skulachev called process of self-liquidation of mitochondrions (the organelle providing breath of cages) mitoptozy. It occurs in case in mitochondrions a large number of free radicals collects. Products of disintegration of the died mitochondrions can poison a cage and lead to her death (apoptosis). Process of aging according to V. P. Skulachev happens when in an organism the quantity of the died-off cages exceeds quantity again educated, and the died cages are replaced with connecting fabric.

According to the academician V. P. Skulachev, an exit consists in prevention of destruction of cages by free radicals. That is, he considers an old age as a curable disease if to cancel the programmed aging of an organism.

V. P. Skulachev considers that the most pernicious action on cages and mitokhodriya active forms of oxygen, in particular hydrogen peroxide possess. As cure for aging of an organism the academician developed and offered the medicine SKQ which clinical tests are not finished yet.

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Prevention of aging of skin


For prevention of presenilation of skin caused by the increased insolation means for protection against ultra-violet radiation are used. Action of one of these means is directed to catching of ultraviolet under the influence of which there is their chemical transformation. As a result – a part of energy of radiation is spent for chemical reaction and does not reach thermal cages. Such means can have contraindications since their penetration into an organism with a blood-groove through skin and collateral allergic reactions is possible. As a good alternative to similar sun-protection substances serve photoprotectors which part the tonkomoloty mineral pigments (dioxide of the titanium or oxides of zinc) which are not getting deep into skin, and reflecting ultraviolet rays from its surface are. Sun-protection means include the water, fats, vitamin E softening and moisturizing components. It is useful to use postsolar means for cooling, food and moistening of skin.


Good moisture content – an indispensable condition of prevention of presenilation of skin. Impact of any climatic and atmospheric factors on skin negatively affects its moisture content, especially in the conditions of the urban environment where air contains many aggressive chemical components. At low humidity of air the organism loses water, at raised – sweating and production of skin fat amplifies. Even at high humidity if the increased air temperature is observed, skin needs protection against a siccation under the influence of the sun, moistening and careful regular clarification. Low temperature and low humidity of air dry up skin, depriving of it moisture. At low humidity and high temperature skin also actively loses moisture. The siccation of skin is possible from strong wind at raised or on the contrary to the lowered temperature. Under the influence of wind skin not only becomes thinner, it becomes scaly, begins to be shelled. Adverse atmospheric actions should oppose additional measures for moistening and protection of skin: use of qualitative day cream and long stay in the fresh air in a favorable ecological zone.

Healthy lifestyle

It is necessary to begin care of skin and prevention of its presenilation, first of all, from the organization of a rational work-rest schedule, giving preference to a healthy lifestyle. The organism deprived of a full-fledged and sufficient dream is doomed to development of adverse effects, the tired condition of skin is first of which. Formation of new cages happens during sleep therefore skin naturally restores the structure when we sleep.

Regular trainings by sport train skin, increase its elasticity. Under the influence of the raised loadings there is an additional inflow of blood to skin having the good stimulating effect. The sport and physical exercises well help to cope with a stress – the worst enemy of healthy skin.

The long stress causes convulsive reduction of facial muscles, long stretching of elastic fibers and their overfatigue. At a stress skin lacks for oxygen and food since under the influence of the raised adrenaline there is a violation of capillary blood circulation. One more hormone of a stress – a cortisone – breaks process of regeneration of skin and formation of collagen. The reasonable relation to life events, opposition to a stress – an effective way of protection against skin presenilation.

Healthy young skin and smoking – incompatible concepts. If you want to resist to aging of skin, it is necessary to leave a smoking addiction to avoid emergence of wrinkles around a mouth and eyes. Smokers need additional reception of vitamins A, E, C, pro-vitamin A (beta keratin) to prevent formation of a large number of small wrinkles.

Even more essential harm to health and condition of skin puts alcohol intake. Under its influence capillaries which become noticeable extend, changing appearance of skin. Alcohol intake adversely affects work of a liver that inevitably is reflected in a condition of skin. The same adverse action, so and on skin, renders the excessive use of strong tea and coffee on a liver.

Aging of skin can be caused by application of some types of medicines therefore it is not necessary to self-medicate also the uncontrolled use of medicines.

And at last, balanced, vitamin-rich and minerals food and sufficient consumption of liquid (to 2 liters a day) promote maintenance of normal vital balance in cages and fabrics, interferes with skin presenilation.

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Aging of skin - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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