Skin new growths
Skin new growths – good-quality or malignant tumoral damages of skin as a result of pathological growth of cells of fabrics. Warts, birthmarks, papillomas, lipomas, angioma, adenomas, etc. belong to good-quality new growths. To malignant – a melanoma, sarcoma, an epitelioma. The special group is made by precancer tumors of skin: leukoplakia, skin horn, senile keratoma, etc. The majority of new growths of skin has to be subjected to removal since during the traumatizing or insolation the probability of their malignant regeneration is high.
Skin new growths
New growths of skin are a pathological growth terms at which the size of cages or their quantity increases; pathologically changed cages terms are formed in a limited tumor. The number of new cages in a healthy organism is equally proportional to number died off, but at influence of adverse factors uncontrolled reproduction of cages begins, cages share, without having reached yet a maturity therefore – they are not capable to perform the initial functions. At malignant new growths of skin sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate from what layer terms there was a tumor.
Factors which can start process of uncontrolled cell fission quite a lot, but the major contributing factor for new growths of skin are frequent injuries of skin therefore cages should be regenerated rather actively and as a result control over division is lost. All types of radiation, including x-ray and solar radiation, provoke skin new growths. Hereditary predisposition and light skin with abundance of birthmarks in combination with other risk factors practically always lead to good-quality new growths of skin which can malignizirovatsya and be transformed further to a cancer tumor.
In spite of the fact that good-quality new growths of skin do not bear direct harm of life of the patient, they, having the huge sizes, can break normal functioning of various bodies, squeezing the nervous terminations – to cause pain, and squeezing blood vessels – to break blood circulation in a concrete part of the body.
Continuous impact on skin of aggressive substances, skin infections of bacterial and virus character, and also chronic skin diseases such as eczema, increase probability of emergence of new growths of skin. Skin new growths as a result of metastasises of cancer cells from other bodies and a new growth of skin are diagnosed for persons who do not enter into risk group seldom. All new growths of skin divide into three groups: good-quality new growths of skin, precancer conditions of skin and malignant new growths.
Good-quality new growths of skin
Cages of good-quality new growths of skin, despite the lost control over division, can be differentiated, also they more keep the initial functions. Such tumors grow slowly, squeeze nearby fabrics, but never hang in them.
Papillomas and warts – have the virus nature and externally look as a skin new growth in the form of cambers or outgrowths on a leg. The last, being often injured, malignizirutsya and transformed to cancer new growths of skin and other bodies. A dangerous precancer state is the huge condyloma of Bushke-Levenstein, it is caused by VPCh, as well as ordinary condylomas, but is characterized by rapid growth, the huge sizes and release of exudate with an unpleasant smell. Unlike ordinary condylomas, it has the progressing current, tendency to germination in nearby fabrics and recurs even after full excision of an affected area, is very quickly transformed to planocellular cancer of skin.
Dermatofibroma - a good-quality new growth of skin and connecting fabric; the pathogenesis of this tumor is unknown, but there is a communication between gistogenetichesky prekapillyarny changes and development of a dermatofibroma. It is diagnosed for women of young and mature age, it is noted by the slow growth and insignificant subjective feelings, this new growth of skin begins to grow in isolated cases spontaneously and in even more rare - malignizirutsya. Externally looks as deeply sealed knot, on a surface only a small part of a new growth of skin in the form of a hemisphere acts; the tumor surface smooth, is more rare warty or giperkeratotichesky. Localization of a tumor has no accurate preferences, but meets on the lower extremities more often, color of a new growth varies from light gray to brown and blue-black. The size of a tumor is small, from 0,3 to 3 cm in the diameter, it should be differentiated from such new growths of skin as a pigmentary nevus, a bazaliom and a dermatofibrosarkom.
Birthmarks and nevus are the limited hyper pigmented sites of skin because of an uneven congestion of melanotsit, the main part from is the acquired new growths on skin because of excess stay under open beams of the sun. About a half of malignant melanomas develop from melantotsit of birthmarks and birthmarks. And therefore, if the quantity of birthmarks and their size increases, intensity of coloring amplifies, then it is necessary consultation of an onkodermatolog or the dermatologist.
Precancer new growths of skin
The pigmentary xeroderma in which pathogenesis hypersensibility of skin to various beam energy lies a congenital disease, because of violations in system of enzymes, shit loses properties of regeneration. It is possible to suspect this pathology on a large number of freckles at children of the first year of life on sites of skin most of which often are exposed to insolation. Freckles are quickly transformed to warty growths. Dispensary observation of the children having genetic predisposition and constant protection of skin against solar radiation allows to reduce probability of cancer new growths of skin. At such new growth of skin as a pigmentary xeroderma, the forecast adverse as practically in all cases cellular and planocellular cancer develops. The lethality in age group up to 20 years is very high.
Precancer new growths of skin of senile age
Bowen's disease or vnutriepidermalny cancer is clinically shown by new growths on skin of spotty and nodular character, in the form of papules and plaques which merging, form the extensive surfaces covered with papillomatozny outgrowths. Incidence is high among people of mature and senile age of both floors. The contributing factors are existence of the warts caused by a virus of papilloma of the person; in view of the expressed polymorphism of cages of this new growth of skin, Bowen's Disease comes to an end with undifferentiated cancer with development of metastasises in other bodies and fabrics.
Keyr's disease occurs at elderly people; clinically this new growth of skin looks as bright red velvety knot on genitals, a course of disease long, over time the knot can and become covered by papillomatozny outgrowths. Similar new growths of skin are, as a rule, painless, but in view of localization, they are often injured that causes bleeding and pain. Unlike Bowen's Disease this new growth of skin has a good-quality current and malignizirutsya less often.
Senile keratoma - a new growth on skin from its epitelialny layers which occurs at persons of senile age. Initial manifestations look as limited sites of a solitary or multiple giperkeratoz which become further dense plaques of rounded shape to one and a half centimeters in the diameter and over time become covered by dense crusts. Such new growths of skin mainly on open sites are localized, characterized by slow growth and malignizirutsya seldom or never.
Such new growth of skin as skin horn occurs at persons of senile age and develops on open sites, mainly in places subject to frequent friction and squeezing. Primary skin horn arises on not changed skin whereas secondary is preceded by various new growths of skin, tuberculosis, red a wolf cub and aktinicheskiya . After formation the adult tumor looks as cone-shaped horn education which length several times exceeds diameter of the basis of a tumor. The course of a tumor long is localized on skin, a red border of lips, the malignization comes quite often.
Malignant new growths of skin
Malignant new growths of skin make 7-10% of all malignant tumors. Strikes persons of both floors, but people of mature age are more subject. Differ from benign tumors in the fact that terms it is already difficult to differentiate cages at initial stages of a disease, they do not perform the functions, are capable to strike nearby bodies and fabrics and to spread on blood and lymphatic vessels, causing tumors in all organism.
The melanoma is the most malignant of all new growths of skin, existence of the congenital and acquired pigmentary spots increases risk of developing of a melanoma as it arises from melantotsit – pigmentary cells of skin. Women of middle and senile age with a fair hair and blue eyes are most subject to a melanoma. The new growth on skin is localized generally on the lower and top extremities, the pathogenesis of an ozlokachestvlivaniye of birthmarks and pigmentary spots is up to the end not studied, but their travmatization, attempts to remove birthmarks and spots aggressive chemicals, cuts and insolation promote a malignization.
The main symptoms which indicate a malignization of such new growths on skin as pigmentary spots and birthmarks are change of pigmentation of a nevus, sharp increase in the size, frequent bleeding and an ulceration. That is, manifestations of a birthmark not specific earlier tell any about its regeneration. And, despite the small size, the tumor quickly extends to the neighboring sites in the form of small knots satellites and spreads at first in regionarny lymph nodes, and then and in internals. Travmatization can lead to premature regeneration in cancer as even the biopsy for a cytologic research is carried out in the presence of erosion and ulcers not to make active .
Epiteliomami is called by all new growths of skin from epitelialny cages and are diagnosed in 50-60% of all cancer of skin. Epitelioma arise on the sites which are not struck with other new growths of skin. In the beginning the small small knot of pinkish-yellow shades which grows for many years is observed, but its sizes are not considerable – to 1-1,5 cm in the diameter therefore it remains unnoticed. Tells existence of a yellowish-gray crust by which the epitelioma becomes covered over time about activization of process. The roller around a new growth on skin consisting of cartilaginoid consolidations with brilliant gloss is an adverse diagnostic sign. Further the ulceration and bleeding is observed, the tumor quickly spreads in regionarny lymph nodes and in other bodies.
Kaposha's sarcoma or meets at patients with AIDS more often, but the classical form of sarcoma and a new growth on skin at patients with immunodeficiencies clinically and are histologically identical. Men are more subject to this type of malignant tumors of skin; Kaposha's sarcoma mainly on the lower extremities is localized. In the beginning there are violet, lilac spots without accurate outlines are more rare, further on this background there are dense roundish small knots of cyanotic-brown color with a diameter up to 2 cm small knots are inclined to merge and an ulceration, at patients with HIV infection the disease accepts aggressive character sometimes with lightning damage of lymph nodes and metastasis on all organism.
The low-differentiated skin cancer forms
Despite the small sizes, similar new growths of skin are extremely dangerous, cages lose ability to an orogoveniye and the expressed cellular atipizm is observed. Similar oncological diseases of skin are shown by minor changes, usually a tumor no more pea in a size, but the atipizm, and impossibility to differentiate type of cages more are expressed, the forecast at these new growths of skin is more adverse. Endofitny growth of a tumor leads to germination in blood vessels and to bleedings, on blood vessels cancer cells disseminirut on all organism, causing numerous metastasises. As a rule, such forms of cancer come to an end with a lethal outcome from a kakheksiya, bleeding or an endointoxication in several years after installation of the diagnosis.
Diagnostics of new growths of skin
The great value in early diagnostics is allocated for self-diagnostics and regular dispensary inspections. Attentiveness of the doctor at visual survey allows to diagnose pathological conditions and new growths of skin and to direct the patient to further inspection.
Attentiveness to the health and to health of the relatives gives the chance in time to notice changes in birthmarks, pigmentation and birthmarks. And, if there are skin changes without objective on the reasons, it is necessary to undergo inspection at the dermatologist or at an onkodermatolog where on the basis of visual survey, histologic researches and researches of the general condition of an organism the opukholevidny nature of new growths of skin will be confirmed or excluded.
Treatment and prevention
There is no specific prevention of oncological diseases, it is possible to refer removal of birthmarks and removal of warts to preventive measures at an initial stage of their emergence, especially if there is a lot of birthmarks. The persons having genetic predisposition to oncological diseases should avoid insolation, to approach the place of the choice of a workplace more carefully and to avoid contacts with cancerogenic substances, having excluded products which can provoke from a diet, it is possible to reduce probability of diseases of an onkokharakter considerably.
Treatment of new growths of skin most often consists an affected area with partial excision of healthy fabrics at a distance. Removal by the laser recrudesces smaller percent as besides removal there is a cauterization of a wound surface and does not allow a further disseminirovaniye of tumor cells. Electrothermic coagulation and cryodestruction of good-quality new growths of skin, and also a radio wave method of removal can be applied.
In case new growths of skin are in a stage of inoperable cancer, apply beam and chemotherapy. But if the new growth initially has malignant character, the forecast always adverse as spreading a tumor causes deep damages of internals though manifestations on skin can be insignificant. The probability of a lethal outcome is quite high, patients die of an endointoxication, massive internal bleedings, polyorgan insufficiency and of a kakheksiya.
If the new growth of skin has the good-quality course or a condition of a precancer, then timely surgical intervention almost completely excludes a possibility of a recurrence and corrects cosmetic defects of appearance.