Violations of the speech – various disorders of speech activity interfering full speech communication and social interaction. Speak about violations of the speech in case deviations of functioning of psikhofiziologichesyoky mechanisms of the speech take place; discrepancy of level of speech development to age norm; shortcomings of the speech are not overcome samoyostoyatelno and can negatively influence psiyokhichesky development of the individual. At children and adults the pedagogical science – logopedics, and also sodruzhestvenny sciences of a medical cycle is engaged in it in studying and overcoming violation of the speech (neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, stomatology, etc.).further...
Violations of the speech
Violations of the speech – various disorders of speech activity interfering full speech communication and social interaction. Speak about violations of the speech in case deviations of functioning of psikhofiziologichesyoky mechanisms of the speech take place; discrepancy of level of speech development to age norm; shortcomings of the speech are not overcome samoyostoyatelno and can negatively influence psiyokhichesky development of the individual. At children and adults the pedagogical science – logopedics, and also sodruzhestvenny sciences of a medical cycle is engaged in it in studying and overcoming violation of the speech (neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, stomatology, etc.).
Modern classifications consider violations of the speech from positions of an etiopatogenez (a kliniko-pedagogical klasyosifikation) and in aspect of frustration of the psychophysical organization of speech activity (psychology and pedagogical classification).
Thus, the kliniko-pedagogical klasyosifikation includes violations of a written language (to dyslexia/Alexy, dysgraphia/agraphia) and violations of oral speech which are divided into disorders of fonatsionny (external) execution of the speech (a dislaliya, a dizartriya, a rinolaliya, a bradilaliya, a takhilaliya, stutter, violations of a voice) and disorders of structural-semantic (internal) execution of the statement (an alaliya and aphasia).
Psychology and pedagogical classification allocates violations of language components of the speech (FFN and ONR), and also violation in application of language means (stutter, a mutizm). The difficult combined defects are possible (FFN + stutter, ONR + stutter).
All variety of the reasons causing violation of development of the speech can be divided on biological and social. So, the biological factors causing violations of the speech can influence during various periods of ontogenesis. On stages of pre-natal development and childbirth the most adverse effect on maturing and the subsequent functioning of brain structures of the child are rendered by a fruit hypoxia, pre-natal infections, patrimonial injuries and so forth; in the first months after the birth – injuries, brain infections. Violations of the speech at senior citizens are, as a rule, connected with vascular damages of a brain (a stroke, a rupture of aneurism of vessels of a brain), severe injuries of the head, brain tumors, neurosurgical interventions.
The social and psychological factors leading to violation of development of the speech in children can be expressed in lack of due consideration to formation of the children's speech from adults; wrong speech of people around; need of assimilation by the child preschool child at the same time two language systems; to the excessive, not corresponding age opportunities of stimulation of speech development of the child, stresses etc.
Serve as the contributing conditions to emergence of violations of the speech at children, the so-called, critical periods in development of speech function: 1-2 years, 3 years and 6-7 years. These periods are sensitive for development of the speech: at this time there is the most intensive formation of a psychophysiological basis of the speech, and nervous mechanisms of regulation of speech activity are extremely vulnerable. Therefore any, even, apparently, the insignificant biological or social factors operating during the critical periods can lead to emergence of violations of the speech.
Violations of the speech have resistant character and, having arisen under the influence of this or that factor, do not disappear independently, without specially organizoyovanny logopedic help. Besides, violations of the speech have an adverse effect on development of the intellectual sphere, behavior and the personality in general. At the same time, in most cases violations of the speech are reversible, both the purposeful and in due time undertaken correction allows to return to the person joy of communication and to prevent development of secondary mental stratifications.
The logopedic help to the persons suffering from violations of the speech appears in an education system (specialized preschool educational institutions, logopedic groups, logopedic points, schools for children with heavy violations of the speech and so forth), in a health system (logopedic offices at policlinics, clinics, hospitals, specialized medical tsentyora, children's homes etc.), the private developing centers. In these institutions logopedists hold consultations, comprehensive diagnostic inspection and correction of violations of the speech.
A course of logopedic occupations is conducted according to the special program according to specifics of a naruyosheniye of the speech. On classes in correction of violations of the speech speech exercises, articulation and respiratory gymnastics, logopedic massage, a logoritmika are used. Logopedic influence at violations of the speech is actively combined with medicinal therapy, psychotherapy, massage, physical therapy, physiotherapy exercises, if necessary – surgical intervention.
Prevention of violations of the speech begins actually with the moment of origin of new life and continues after the birth, throughout all life. It includes care of favorable course of pregnancy, psychological and physical health of pregnant women and children, early detection of risk factors of violations of the speech and their elimination. In prevention of violations of the speech at children the speech environment is essential.
To get acquainted with main types of speech pathology and forms of logopedic influence you can in the sections "Violations of the Speech" and "Logopedics" on the website "Medicine-for-you.com". The catalog of the organizations giving logopedic help, convenient service of search of the specialist logopedist with a possibility of online record on consultation and treatment is also offered to your attention.further...