Cancer of a stomach is a malignant epitelialny tumor of a mucous membrane of a stomach. The loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, pain in an epigastriya, nausea, a dysphagy and vomiting, bystry saturation are signs of cancer of stomach at meal, an abdominal distension, a melen. Establishment of the diagnosis is promoted by carrying out gastroscopy with a biopsy, to a X-ray analysis of a stomach, ultrasonography of abdominal organs, an endosonografiya, definition of tumoral markers, a research a calla on the hidden blood. Depending on prevalence of cancer of stomach the partial or total resection of a stomach is made; carrying out chemotherapy and radiation therapy is possible.
Stomach cancer – the malignant new growth in most cases proceeding from ferruterous epitelialny cells of a stomach. Among malignant tumors of a stomach in 95% adenocarcinomas come to light, is more rare – other histologic forms – lymphoma, planocellular cancer, leyomiosarkoma, , than an adenoakantoma. Men have cancer a stomach 1,7 times more often than women; usually the disease develops at the age of 40-70 years (average age of 65 years). Cancer of a stomach is inclined to bystry metastasis in bodies of a digestive tract, often sprouts in the next fabrics and bodies through a stomach wall (in a pancreas, a small intestine), often is complicated by a necrosis and bleeding. With current of blood spreads mainly in lungs, a liver; on vessels to lymphatic system - in lymph nodes.
Stomach cancer reasons
Now the gastroenterology knows about mechanisms of development and the causes of cancer of stomach insufficiently. The modern theory of development of cancer of stomach assumes that a noticeable role in its emergence is played by contamination of Helicobacter Pylori. Among risk factors note the following: smoking, chronic gastritis, stomach operations, pernitsiozny anemia, genetic predisposition. States with high risk of development of cancer is stomach adenoma, atrophic gastritis, chronic stomach ulcer.
Most often cancer develops at middle-aged persons and is more senior, men get sick more often. However lack of risk factors does not guarantee completely avoiding of cancer of stomach. As well as at people with a combination of several cancerogenic factors cancer of a stomach arises not always.
Classification of cancer of stomach
Cancer of a stomach is classified by stages according to the international classification of malignant new growths: TNM classification, where T – a condition (a development stage) of primary tumor (from a zero stage of a precancer to the fourth stage of germination of a tumor in the next fabrics and bodies), N – presence of metastasises at regional lymph nodes (from N0-of lack of metastasises, to N3 – infection with metastasises more than 15 regional lymph nodes), M – existence of metastasises in the remote bodies and fabrics (there is no M0 – M1 – is).
Stomach cancer symptoms
The early stage of development of cancer of stomach often proceeds without clinical manifestations, the symptomatology begins to develop, as a rule, already at a tumor of the second or third stage (germination in submucous layers and further).
With development of a disease the following symptoms come to light: pain in an epigastriya (originally moderate), weight in a stomach after meal, a loss of appetite and weight loss, nausea up to vomiting (vomiting, as a rule, signals about decrease in passability of a stomach – obstruction by a tumor of privratnikovy department). At development of cancer in the field of a sebesten the dysphagy (swallowing violation) is possible.
At the third stage of cancer (when the tumor affects all layers of a wall of a stomach up to muscular and serous) there is a syndrome of early saturation. It is connected with decrease in tensile properties of a stomach.
At germination swelled up in blood vessels there can be gastric bleedings. Consequences of cancer: anemia, decrease in food, cancer intoxication lead to development of the general weakness, high fatigue. Presence any of above-mentioned symptoms is not sufficient for diagnosing of cancer of stomach, thus also other diseases of a stomach and digestive organs can be shown. The diagnosis "stomach cancer" is established only on the basis of data of a research of a bioptat.
However identification of similar symptoms demands the immediate address to the gastroenterologist for passing of inspection and the earliest detection of a malignant new growth.
Diagnosis of cancer of stomach
"stomach cancer" is the only basis for establishment of the diagnosis results of a histologic research of a new growth. But for detection of a tumor, clarification of its sizes, characteristics of a surface, localization and implementation of an endoscopic biopsy carry out gastroscopy.
Existence of the increased lymph nodes of a sredosteniye and metastasises in lungs can be revealed at a X-ray analysis of lungs. The contrast X-ray analysis of a stomach visualizes presence of a new growth at a stomach.
Ultrasonography of abdominal organs is carried out for clarification of distribution of tumoral process. With the same purposes (detailed visualization of a new growth) carry out a multispiral computer tomography (MSKT). PET helps with definition of distribution of malignant process - the positron and issue tomography (entered into an organism radioactive glucose gathers in tumor fabrics, visualizing the malignant process which went beyond a stomach).
At laboratory blood test specific onkomarker reveal. Kal check for presence of the hidden blood. The detailed research of a tumor, a possibility of its surgical removal define at a diagnostic laparoscopy, at the same time the fence of a bioptat for a research is also possible.
Cancer therapy of a stomach
Tactics of medical actions depends on a stage of development of cancer of stomach, the size of a tumor, germination to the neighboring areas, extents of settling by malignant cells of lymph nodes, defeats by metastasises of other bodies, the general condition of an organism, associated diseases of bodies and systems.
At cancer of a stomach can apply three main techniques of treatment of malignancies: surgical removal, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The combination of techniques is in most cases used. Tactics of treatment is defined by the specialist oncologist, after comprehensive examination of the patient, obtaining recommendations of adjacent experts.
In cases of early detection of a tumor (at stages 0 and 1) when metastasises are absent, germination in a wall does not reach submucous layers, perhaps full surgical removal of cancer. Removal of the site of a wall of a stomach, cancer-stricken, a part of surrounding fabrics, nearby lymph nodes is carried out. Sometimes, depending on extent of damage of a stomach the tumor, makes a partial or total resection of a stomach.
After such operations the total amount of a stomach considerably decreases, or if the stomach is completely removed, the gullet connects to a small intestine directly. Therefore patients after a resection of a stomach can eat limited amount of food at one time.
Radiation therapy (radiation of the bodies and fabrics affected with a tumor ionizing radiation) is made for a stop of growth and reduction of a tumor in the preoperative period and as the means suppressing activity of cancer cells and destruction of the probable centers of cancer after removal of a tumor.
Chemotherapy – medicamentous suppression of growth of malignancies. The complex of chemotherapeutic medicines includes the highly toxic means destroying tumor cells. After operation on removal of a malignant new growth the chemotherapy is applied to suppression of activity of the remained cancer cells to exclude probability of a recurrence of cancer of stomach. Often the chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy for strengthening of effect. Surgical treatments it is also, as a rule, combined from one way or another suppression of activity of cancer cells.
The patients having stomach cancer have to well, fully eat throughout all treatment. The organism struggling with a malignant tumor needs a large amount of protein, vitamins, minerals, the sufficient caloric content of a daily diet is necessary. Difficulties arise in case of the expressed oppression of mentality (apathy, a depression) and refusal of food. Sometimes there is a need for parenteral introduction of nutritious mixes.
Complications of cancer of stomach and side effects of therapy
The heavy complications considerably worsening the course of a disease can be as direct result of existence of a malignant tumor, and to turn out to be consequence of very tyazheloperenosimy methods of antineoplastic therapy. At stomach cancer often there are bleedings from vessels of the damaged wall that promotes development of anemia. Large tumors can nekrotizirovatsya, worsening the general condition of an organism allocation in blood of products of necrotic disintegration. Loss of appetite and the strengthened consumption by tumoral fabric of nutrients promotes development of the general dystrophy.
Long radiation therapy can promote development of the expressed beam burn, and also beam dermatitis and radiation sickness. Side effects of chemotherapy is the general weakness, nausea (up to regular vomiting), diarrhea, an alopetion (baldness), dryness of skin, dermatitis, eczema, fragility of nails, deformation of nail plates, frustration of the sexual sphere.
The joined infection can be one of widespread complications. Owing to the suppressed immunity the course of infectious process can be very heavy.
Forecast and prevention of cancer of stomach
Cancer of a stomach is diagnosed, as a rule, already at a stage of not cured tumor. Only in forty percent of cases the new growth at which there is a probability of treatment comes to light (cancer at an early stage without metastasis or with metastasises in nearby lymph nodes). Thus, at detection of cancer of the third and fourth stage, at his tendency to a rapid current and complications the forecast the crane is adverse.
Expeditious treatment in combination with this or that method of antineoplastic therapy gives five-year survival after operation at 12% of patients. In case of early detection of cancer (superficial distribution without germination to submucous layers of a wall of a stomach) survival increases to 70% of cases. At ozlokachestvlenny stomach ulcer probability of survival – from 30 to 50%.
The least favorable forecast at the inoperable tumors which affected through all layers of a gastric wall and got into surrounding fabrics. The course of cancer is adverse if metastasises in lungs and a liver are revealed. At inoperable tumors of a stomach therapy is directed to relief of symptoms and the greatest possible reduction in the rate of progressing of a disease.
The main measures of prevention of cancer of stomach are: timely treatment of diseases which are precancer states, regular healthy nutrition, refusal of smoking. A significant measure in prevention of development of malignant new growths is control of a state mucous a stomach and timely identification of the arising tumoral processes.