Stomatitis — inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity of various etiology. It is characterized by reddening, puffiness mucous (catarrhal stomatitis), formation of bubbles and erosion (aftozny stomatitis), ulcerations (ulcer stomatitis) in an oral cavity, morbidity and burning, especially at meal. For definition of an etiology of stomatitis conduct a research of dabs taken from an affected area of mucous. Treatment of stomatitis consists of the etiologichesky, anesthetizing, ranoochishchayushchy and healing therapy. In mild cases respect for hygiene and sanitation of an oral cavity lead to recovery. The recidivous or heavy course of stomatitis speaks about existence of the general disease of an organism.
Stomatitis is an inflammation of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity. The disease can arise for various reasons, but among children of younger age incidence of stomatitises is several times higher.
Reasons of development of stomatitis.
Stomatitis can act as an independent disease and as a symptom of system pathologies. So, the puzyrchatka, a system sklerodermiya and a streptodermiya can be the reason of emergence of stomatitis as symptom. Immunodeficiency during the prodromalny period are most often shown by the long stomatitises which are badly giving in to treatment. But more often stomatitis acts as an independent disease. Mechanical injuries are the chopped-off teeth, firm fragments of food or incorrectly established artificial limbs the reasons of traumatic stomatitises. After elimination of the injuring factor such stomatitises pass independently.
Too hot food can cause a burn mucous, such stomatitis passes without treatment too. An exception is the chronic inflammation of a mucous membrane of a mouth because of regular reception of excessively hot food. Hypersensitivity to food, medicinal substances and to components of care products for an oral cavity can become the reason of the long allergic stomatitises which are difficult giving in to treatment.
Infectious stomatitises, including herpetic and kandidozny occur at people of different age groups. At the same time at children the contact way of infection prevails, and associated diseases, such as bronchial asthma and diabetes are the reason of infectious stomatitises at adults.
Also classify stomatitises by the causes. The second classification is conducted on defeat depth, so distinguish catarrhal, ulcer, necrotic and aftozny stomatitises.
Clinical displays of stomatitises.
Catarrhal stomatitis is the most common form of stomatitises. The mucous membrane of an oral cavity becomes edematous, hyperemic and painful. Patients show complaints to morbidity during acceptance of food, increase in salivation, sometimes on bleeding and on an unpleasant smell from a mouth. In certain cases at catarrhal stomatitis mucous is covered with a yellow-white raid.
Ulcer stomatitis can be the started form of catarrhal stomatitis or develop as an independent disease. At ulcer stomatitis all mucous membrane whereas at catarrhal – only its top layer is affected. At the initial stage catarrhal and ulcer stomatitis have similar symptomatology, but in 3-5 days after the beginning of a disease body temperature increases, and regionarny lymph nodes increase. Patients show complaints to sharp morbidity during acceptance of food, many of them refuse food. Symptoms of the general weakness accrue, the headache develops. Symptoms of ulcer stomatitis at children and the weakened patients are especially brightly shown.
At aftozny stomatitis the mucous membrane of an oral cavity becomes covered by multiple or single afta – ulcers of oval or rounded shape. From healthy fabric of an afta are delimited by a narrow red border, and in the center of an aftozny ulcer there is a gray or yellow raid. Aftozny stomatitis begins with symptoms of a general malaise, after temperature increase of a body mucous oral cavities becomes painful, further in areas of morbidity afta appear. After healing on the place of aftozny ulcers there are scars.
At infection of an oral cavity with a virus of simple herpes diagnose sharp herpetic stomatitis. Children in the closed institutions are generally subject to herpetic stomatitis. The Prodromalny period is absent, the disease begins with sharp rise in temperature to febrilny values, the general health of patients suffers too. At survey mucous oral cavities it is hyperemic, edematous, sometimes there are centers of bleeding of gums. Most of patients with herpetic stomatitis show complaints to increase in salivation and to emergence of an unpleasant smell from a mouth. In several days on mucous there are small groups small and vesicles and symptoms of necrotic changes of an epithelium join.
Ulcer and necrotic stomatitis or Vincent's stomatitis is caused by symbiosis a spindle-shaped bacterium and a spirokhety mouth. Hypovitaminoses and decrease in immunity promote developing of this stomatitis. Clinically yazveno-necrotic stomatitis is characterized by emergence on mucous a mouth of ulcers and erosion and temperature increase of a body to subfebrilny values. Patients show complaints to morbidity and bleeding of gums, the putrefactive smell from a mouth joins over time. The beginning of process from desnevy edge is characteristic of yazveno-necrotic stomatitis, further the inflammation passes to other sites of a mucous membrane.
Allergic stomatitis can be any severity, beginning from a catarrhal form and finishing yazveno-necrotic. On distribution allergic stomatitis can be localized or diffusion. At influence on mucous medicinal substances which became allergens allergic stomatitis usually has catarrhal or catarrhal and hemorrhagic character. Patients show complaints to dryness in a mouth and an itch, meal becomes painful. The mucous membrane of an oral cavity is edematous, hyperemic, at the long and current allergic stomatitis atrophic changes of nipples of language are noted.
Diagnostics and treatment of stomatitises.
The clinical picture, subjective complaints and attentive survey by the stomatologist is enough correctly to make the diagnosis. Sometimes resort to laboratory diagnostics: The PTsR-research on candidiasis and herpes, scrape or dab. And at stomatitises resistant to treatment the general inspection for detection of system diseases which became the main reason for stomatitis is shown.
The purpose of therapy is reduction of morbidity and duration of a course of a disease. Statistical data confirm that stomatitises meet less often or pass quicker if to use oral cavity care products which do not contain lauryl sulfate of sodium this component can provoke emergence of slow and recurrent stomatitises.
Applications and rinsing by low-percentage solutions of anesthetics help to reduce morbidity that is especially important at ulcer stomatitises. It helps to keep appetite and not to allow refusal of food.
Ulcer elements grease with benzocaine, lidocaine, trimekainy, and also juice of an aloe or kalanchoe, these substances not only reduce morbidity at stomatitis, but also cover erozirovanny sites with a protective film. It is necessary to consider that anesthetics are suitable for short-term treatment, long use of such medicines is inadmissible.
The good effect is rendered by medicines which clear ulcers of a bacterial plaque. At ulcer stomatitises the layer of a bacterial plaque interferes with bystry healing of elements therefore stomatitis gains slow or recidivous character. The clearing pastes contain peroxide of a carbamide and peroxide of hydrogen in the majority.
Use of antibacterial medicines is an aggressive method of treatment of stomatitises. They are applied if there is a reinfitsirovaniye of sores, medicines which part the hlogeksidina is are most often applied. Long use of such medicines causes formation of spots on teeth and seals which pass after the end of treatment.
Antiviral ointments render good effect if stomatitis has the virus nature. Use interferon, oksolinovy, tebrofenovy and other antiviral ointments perhaps only after appointment as the doctor. There are medicines which create a protective film on sores. Such film accelerates healing, prevents reinfitsirovany sores and its travmatization. These are medicines which contain , sea-buckthorn oil, oil of a dogrose and .
Rinsing of an oral cavity Furacilin solution, infusions and broths of a St. John's Wort, calendula, a camomile, bark of an oak and other herbs with antiseptic action accelerate healing process. At catarrhal stomatitis of recovery it is possible to achieve only due to frequent rinsings of an oral cavity. Apply physiotherapeutic methods to treatment of stomatitises: ultrasound, magnetotherapy, Ural federal district, etc.
Treatment of stomatitis of traumatic character consists in elimination of provocative factors, symptomatic therapy is carried out according to indications. Forecast, as a rule, favorable; only in isolated cases chronic traumatic stomatitis can become the reason of a leukoplakia of language or a malignization of cells of an oral cavity. At stomatitis of the allergic nature it is necessary to reveal and eliminate allergen then symptoms of stomatitis pass. In hard cases the hyposensibilizing therapy and hospitalization is required.
Prevention of stomatitises is the correct care of an oral cavity, promotion of a healthy lifestyle and training in rules of personal hygiene since children's age.