Ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis
Mycoplasmosis and Ureaplasmosis – the diseases, mainly urinogenital system caused by different activators, but having a similar clinical picture. At men are shown by symptoms of an uretrit. Cause symptoms of a parauretrit and a vulvit, formation of a pseudo-erosion of a neck of a uterus in women. In the absence of treatment the inflammation quickly passes into a chronic form with periodic aggravations. Internal genitals can be involved in inflammatory process that gradually leads to development of infertility. Development of mikoplazmenny cystitis and pyelonephritis is possible. Mikoplazmenny defeat of integuments, internals and joints meets.
Ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis
Ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis – diseases which causative agents are the smallest microorganisms of family of mycoplasmas - an intermediate link between viruses and bacteria (have no DNA and a cellular cover). Parasitize on membranes of other cages, in particular on cages of an epithelium mucous urinogenital, respiratory, intestinal paths of the person, can be attached to erythrocytes, spermatozoa, macrophages, fibroblasta. The Mycoplasmataceal family includes: sort Mycoplasma (~ 100 types) and sort Ureaplasma (2 look). The majority of mycoplasmas are not pathogenic. In a human body allocate 14 saprofitny (not pathogenic) types of mycoplasmas, and the infection is caused by 4 look - Ureaplasma urealyticum (ureaplasma), Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium.
Ureaplasmas – a special sort of mycoplasmas, the name received because of ability to split urea. Can lead to inflammatory process in urinogenital system – to ureaplasmosis. Not always existence of ureaplasmas leads to development of ureaplasmosis. It occurs under certain conditions, usually together with other pathogenic microorganisms (gonokokk, hlamidiya, trichomonads, gardnerella, a herpes virus) or at dysbacteriosis (75-80% of cases). It, so-called, mikst-infections - communities of microorganisms which alter a picture of a disease and help to be protected from effect of medicines each other.
Ureaplasmosis is considered the disease which is transmitted, mainly, sexually. Usually ureaplasmosis proceeds as a chronic infection. Activation of an asymptomatic course of ureaplasmosis is possible when easing immunity (overcooling, a stress, operations, chronic diseases, pregnancy) when optimum conditions for settling of urogenital department by ureaplasmas and their active reproduction are created. In turn, ureaplasmas actively absorbing oxygen, provoke the strengthened growth of anaerobic bacteria (a gardnerell, ).
At men the bladder, an urethra, a prostate, testicles are subject to risk of development of ureaplasmosis; women have a vagina, a uterus and appendages. At ureaplasmosis spermatozoa can lose the physical activity (enzymes of an ureaplasma change sperm fluidity, at contact of an ureaplasma and spermatozoon there is a dissolution of its membrane).
As inflammatory process, ureaplasmosis can serve as the reason of infertility, violation of an ovulation and a spermatogenesis. Ureaplasmosis often leads to complications, pregnancy not incubation, premature birth. Causative agents of ureaplasmosis can provoke development of an acute inflammation in a uterus (endometritis) after the delivery, surgical termination of pregnancy, Cesarean section. Frequency of occurrence of ureaplasmosis at pregnant women makes 25-30%. Ureaplasmosis provokes an inflammation of joints (rheumatoid arthritis).
Ureaplasmosis is diagnosed most often for patients of 14 - 29 years. Usually at this age the greatest sexual activity is observed. Risk factors of development of ureaplasmosis are the early beginning of sexual life, chaotic sexual contacts, the postponed earlier venereal diseases, gynecologic problems. Ureaplasmosis is transmitted, generally sexually or at close household contact (through linen, personal hygiene means). The pre-natal way of infection of a fruit with ureaplasmosis occurs through amniotic waters of sick mother or in labor. The incubatory period of ureaplasmosis at transmission of infection – on average 2-3 weeks.
Ureaplasmosis in the form of a sharp, chronic infection and a carriage proceeds. Women more often are asymptomatic carriers of ureaplasmosis, for some the ureaplasma is normal microflora of a vagina.
Displays of ureaplasmosis can disturb not enough the patient, and often not disturb absolutely (at a carriage at women). The symptomatology of ureaplasmosis is similar to displays of some other urogenital infections.
At men ureaplasmosis the urethra and a bladder, testicles with appendages, a prostate gland are surprised. At the same time the following symptoms are noted:
- complaints to allocations from an urethra (usually in the mornings);
- painful feelings at an urination (pain and burning);
- some displays of prostatitis;
- orkhoepidimit (an inflammation of a small egg and its appendages).
Ureaplasmosis at men is most often shown by the negonokokkovy uretrit inclined to a long, slow current (allocations from an urethra can spontaneously vanish for some time and again appear). Serve as displays of ureaplasmosis at women:
- symptoms of a chronic colpitis, tservitsit: existence of insignificant transparent or muddy allocations;
- frequent urination (sometimes with pain, burning);
- pain at sexual intercourse;
- pains in the bottom of a stomach - can periodically amplify, decrease, disappear absolutely.
Due to often asymptomatic current, ureaplasmosis is diagnosed late, promoting development of complications.
The preliminary diagnosis of ureaplasmosis cannot be made only on the basis of symptoms (they are insignificant and disturb the patient a little). Conducting diagnostic testings is necessary.
Diagnosis of ureaplasmosis
It is impossible to make the diagnosis only on symptomatology and external survey as the clinical picture specific to this disease – ureaplasmosis is not observed. Now mean inflammatory process of urogenital system when at inspection the ureaplasma is revealed by ureaplasmosis and other activator is not found.
In spite of the fact that today the clinical venereology possesses the wide list of modern diagnostic methods, diagnosis of ureaplasmosis remains difficult because of complexity of detection of ureaplasmas in association of the present microorganisms. By results of microscopy it is only possible to assume existence of ureaplasmas (the number of leukocytes in dab can be a little raised or is normal). Venereologists apply various diagnostic techniques to identification of ureaplasmas:
- PTsR-diagnostics (is most informative);
- method of genetic probes;
- method of direct immunofluorescence (REEF), immunofermental analysis (IFA).
Inspection and treatment concerning ureaplasmosis need to be undergone also to the sexual partner even if it has no complaints. At detection of ureaplasmas only the doctor can define need of treatment.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis
In the course of treatment of ureaplasmosis it is very important to restore normal microflora of bodies of urinogenital system and to liquidate a mikst-infection (anaerobic flora and protozoa). Feature of ureaplasmas is that they are tolerant to some antibacterial medicines - penicillin, tsefalosporina etc.
The majority of ureaplasmas show sensitivity to the following antibiotics:
- Tetratsiklina: , doxycycline (at uncomplicated forms of ureaplasmosis – uretrit, tservitsit, a carriage in the absence of symptoms).
- Macroleads: macrofoams, , , , erythromycin have high efficiency concerning causative agents of ureaplasmosis.
- Linkozamida: lincomycin, .
- Immunomodulators (extract of a timus, lizotsy, , methyluracil). Apply also , extract of an eleuterokokk, araliya tincture.
At treatment of ureaplasmosis use antiprotozoan and antifungal medicines.
Administration of drugs, containing - and lactobacilli is necessary for restoration of normal microflora.
Conducting pregnancy at patients with ureaplasmosis of women is important. To minimize risk of infection with ureaplasmosis of the child, carry surely out treatment of the woman by antibacterial medicines (after 22 weeks).
During a course of treatment of ureaplasmosis observance of a diet rich with lactic products, vitamins, restriction of greasy, smoked, fried food, hot spices and ketchups, the alcohol ban is obligatory. During treatment of ureaplasmosis sex life is excluded.
It is very useful to conduct a course of clarification of intestines sorbents, then a rate of vitamins of group B and C, reception of gepatoprotektor (the medicines improving functions of a liver), bile-expelling herbs.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis is carried out only under control of the doctor, always individually and depends on a stage of process and the struck body.
The course lasts about 2 weeks. Ureaplasmosis is considered cured if in results of laboratory analyses after the carried-out treatment (within 1-2 months) ureaplasmas are not found.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis antibiotics very effectively, but breaks balance of normal microflora of the person therefore it is possible to recommend the antimicrobic device "Ouro-Biofon", homeopathic methods of treatment of ureaplasmosis.
Without treatment ureaplasmosis can renew from time to time. Aggravations can be connected with cold, a stress, the use of a large amount of alcohol, etc. Chronic ureaplasmosis (as constantly present inflammatory process) in the absence of treatment can cause a striktura (pathological narrowing) of an urethra over time, to provoke a prostate gland inflammation.
Chronic ureaplasmosis without treatment at the weakened immunity can cause an inflammation, solderings in uterine tubes (threat of infertility, extra-uterine pregnancy) in women. At pregnant women infection with ureaplasmosis can lead to pregnancy pathology, infection of a fruit. The forecast at the correct and timely treatment of ureaplasmosis – quite favorable.