Medical emergencies

Medical emergencies – the heavy disorders of vitally significant functions posing a threat for life of the patient and demanding rendering the emergency help including by means of methods of intensive therapy and resuscitation. Treat such critical conditions as sharply arisen pathologies (poisoning, asphyxia, traumatic shock), and complications it is long the proceeding chronic diseases (hypertensive crisis, the asthmatic status, a diabetic coma, etc.). Resuscitators of service of emergency medical service, medicine of accidents, ORIT are engaged in knocking over of medical emergencies. However all health workers of the top and average management own bases and the principles of holding resuscitation actions.

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Medical emergencies

Medical emergencies – the heavy disorders of vitally significant functions posing a threat for life of the patient and demanding rendering the emergency help including by means of methods of intensive therapy and resuscitation. Treat such critical conditions as sharply arisen pathologies (poisoning, asphyxia, traumatic shock), and complications it is long the proceeding chronic diseases (hypertensive crisis, the asthmatic status, a diabetic coma, etc.). Resuscitators of service of emergency medical service, medicine of accidents, ORIT are engaged in knocking over of medical emergencies. However all health workers of the top and average management own bases and the principles of holding resuscitation actions.

Zhizneugrozhayushchy states differ for the reasons and the leading mechanism. Knowledge and the accounting of an etiopatogenez of critical disorders of activity are extremely important as they allow to build the correct algorithm of delivery of health care. Depending on the damaging factor medical emergencies are divided into three groups:

  • Injuries. Arise at impact on an organism of extreme factors: thermal, chemical, mechanical and so forth. Include burns, freezing injuries, an electric trauma, fractures, internal injuries and bleedings. Are distinguished on the basis of external survey and assessment of the main processes of activity.
  • Poisonings and allergies. Develop at inhalation, enteralny, parenteral, contact intake of poisons/allergens in an organism. Poisonings with mushrooms, vegetable poisons, alcohol, psychoactive agents, chemical compounds, drug overdose, stings of venomous snakes and insects, anaphylactic shock, etc. enter into this group of medical emergencies. Visible damages at many intoxications are absent, and heavy frustration arise at the cellular level.
  • Diseases of internals. Sharply arisen violations of functions and a condition of a decompensation of chronic processes (a myocardial infarction, a brain stroke, TELA, hypostasis of lungs, hypertensive crisis and a number of others) concern to them. Are diagnosed by means of clinical laboratory and tool methods.

The most often medical emergencies meet in surgery, traumatology, cardiology, neurology, at infectious diseases. In urology of the immediate help renal colic, OPN, a priapizm, a sharp delay of an urination demands. In obstetrics and gynecology uterine bleedings, an eklampsiya of pregnant women, childbirth out of medical institution belong to urgentny cases. In endocrinology those are lactateacidosis, ketoacidosis, hypo - and a hyperglycemia, tireotoksichesky, addisonichesky, gipokaltsiyemichesky, katekholaminovy crises. As specific medical emergencies of children's age serve the false croup, convulsive and hyper thermal syndromes, abortive SVDS.

The patient in critical condition can be distinguished at the first survey, having estimated its provision, a look, color and humidity of integuments, ChSS, frequency, type and the nature of breath, level HELL. Weight of a condition of the patient in resuscitation is defined by degree and speed of violation of vital functions: consciousnesses, haemo loudspeakers, external breath. Besides, urgentny states can proceed with a feverish, pain, intoksikatsionny syndrome, dehydration, mental violations. Symptoms which have to guard relatives and surrounding the patient are sharp weakness and block, loss of consciousness, violation of the speech, the plentiful external bleeding, pallor or cyanosis of skin, suffocation, spasms, repeated vomiting expressed to pain.

The strategy of treatment of medical emergencies consists of the pre-medical help which can be rendered to the victim by the being people nearby, and actually medical events held by professional physicians. The first pre-medical aid depends on the nature of violation and a condition of the patient; it can include cancellation of the damaging factor, giving to the patient of optimum position of a body (with the raised headboard or the foot end), a temporary immobilization of an extremity, oxygen ensuring access, applying of cold or warming of the patient, imposing of a styptic plait. In all cases immediately it is necessary to call "ambulance".

On the arrival of physicians rendering emergency aid is begun with knocking over of the leading syndrome constituting the greatest danger (respiratory violations, circulator frustration, shock manifestations) for the patient. For this purpose to the patient infusion solutions, haemo static, narcotic, vazotonichesky and other medicines can be entered, be carried out medical blockade. In the absence of spontaneous breath the trachea intubation (or the tracheostoma is imposed) is made and IVL is adjusted; at a stop of warm activity adrenaline is vnutriserdechno entered, external massage of heart or a defibrillation is carried out.

The outcome of medical emergencies depends on timeliness, volume and quality of the given emergency help. Warm and pulmonary resuscitation is continued within 30 minutes. As criterion of its efficiency serves restoration of vital functions, in this case after stabilization of a condition of the patient hospitalize in a hospital for further treatment of the main disease. If after the specified time there were no signs of revival of an organism, then resuscitation actions stop and verify biological death. You will find the detailed description of medical emergencies, and also professional recommendations about first-aid treatment to the people who are in critical condition in the Internet reference book "Medicine-for-you.com".

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