Urticaria – a disease of allergic character which is shown by formation of blisters on the surface of skin and on mucous membranes. 25% of the population faced symptoms of a small tortoiseshell at least once in life, at the same time the main part of the woman of them. If the contact with allergen has constant character, then a small tortoiseshell gets a chronic current. The diagnosis of a small tortoiseshell is established on the basis of typical displays of a disease and anamnestichesky data. Treatment has to be carried out by the allergist or the dermatologist.
Urticaria – a disease of allergic character which is shown by formation of blisters on the surface of skin and on mucous membranes. 25% of the population faced symptoms of a small tortoiseshell at least once in life, at the same time the main part of the woman of them. If the contact with allergen has constant character, then a small tortoiseshell gets a chronic current.
Reasons and mechanism of development of a small tortoiseshell
Emission in blood of a large number of a histamine which is formed at contact with allergen is the main reason for formation of blisters on skin. How the organism sensitization quickly develops, a small tortoiseshell can arise at primary contact or after repeated influences of allergen and when concentration of antibodies in blood is rather high, there are symptoms of a small tortoiseshell. Walls of capillaries under the influence of active agents increase the permeability, liquid from vessels propotevat in a term and there is a blister therefore urticaria and is considered a disease of the allergic nature.
Stings of insects, transfusion of components of blood, medicines for vaccination, use of any medicinal substances, and also direct direct contact with allergen or consumption of products which can cause an allergy can provoke a small tortoiseshell. Therefore it is necessary for patients who have allergic predisposition and for whom urticaria was diagnosed already earlier before procedures of local anesthesia and before vaccination to apply antihistaminic medicines.
Clinical displays of urticaria
On skin and mucous numerous blisters of bright pink color suddenly appear. At a small tortoiseshell the main part of rashes develops within an hour when concentration of a histamine in blood is still rather big, but there can be still a bit later a quantity of blisters whereas the main part of skin diseases begins gradually with several elements. In several hours blisters or completely disappear, or there comes the second wave of a small tortoiseshell with formation of new blisters. Chronic urticaria proceeds months, and sometimes and years.
The blisters itching are also painful at a touch, skin around them swelled and is hyperemic. Depending on defeat center size at a small tortoiseshell the general state can not change, or rise in temperature, an indisposition and a headache is noted.
Chronic forms of a small tortoiseshell are connected with an endointoxication and meet at diseases of the digestive system, a liver. The centers of a chronic infection in almonds and a gall bladder, caries and various helminthic invasions can also sensibilize an organism and be the reason of a chronic small tortoiseshell.
Children's small tortoiseshell or treats allergic diseases of skin which develop because of a food sensitization against the background of ekssudativny diathesis. Children who are on artificial feeding and at children whose diet does not correspond to age have a nodular and vesiculate rash. Continuous contacts with allergens, stings of insects and existence of infectious diseases and parasites in an organism promote development of a small tortoiseshell.
The arisen blisters quickly are transformed to small knots of pink-brown color to 3 mm in the diameter with a small bubble at top. As at a small tortoiseshell blisters itch, the affected skin quickly matserirutsya, raschesa, erosion and bloody crusts appear. A small tortoiseshell large folds of a body are surprised, the top extremities sometimes elements extend on all body. At children of younger age especially aged up to three years dispepsichesky frustration are observed: vomiting, diarrhea or on the contrary locks. If a small tortoiseshell accepts chronic slow character, then children become sluggish, whimsical, loss of appetite and a sleep disorder is noted. Because of maceration elements small tortoiseshells are infected with piokokkovy flora. A small tortoiseshell at children needs to be differentiated with itch because of similar clinical manifestations. After seven years practically at all children a small tortoiseshell passes completely.
Huge small tortoiseshell or Quincke swelled it is characterized by sudden emergence of hypostasis of hypodermic cellulose, muscles and fastion, such form of a small tortoiseshell arising in a throat as with out of time given help patients perish from asphyxia is especially dangerous. A huge small tortoiseshell is characterized by existence of diffusion hypostasis which extends on the course of muscles and fastion. Usually hypostasis keeps from several hours to several days and passes completely. At Quincke's hypostasis patients are subject to the emergency hospitalization for performing giposensibilizatsionny therapy.
At a recurrence of a small tortoiseshell at patients the headache, nervousness, nausea and vomiting, sleep disorders is possible, in certain cases urticaria can be complicated by hypostasis of covers of a brain.
As various factors can provoke a small tortoiseshell, divide a holodovy small tortoiseshell when blisters appear at people sensitive to cold, it is a so-called holodovy allergy. At hypersensitivity to ultraviolet solar urticaria develops, people with sensitive skin during the spring and summer period on open sites of skin after solar radiation have blisters. Solar urticaria women with light skin and a fair hair have generally.
At people of advanced age a small tortoiseshell arises at sharp change of temperature and can be shown as at once, and within several days after change of temperature condition. At some women symptoms of a small tortoiseshell appear just before periods, and except external manifestations does not cause discomfort, the weak itch and insignificant hypostasis can sometimes be noted, most often such form of a small tortoiseshell proceeds with formation of 10-15 elements in a breast and a face. A toxic small tortoiseshell is connected with direct contact of some plants, insects, fishes and animals with skin. It can arise at contact with jellyfishes, poisonous plants. Existence of cats in the house can be the reason of a chronic slow small tortoiseshell.
Diagnosis of urticaria
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations and the patient's poll. Practically always takes place to be contact with allergen, at deep inspection the organism sensitization, helminthic invasions, existence of the centers of a chronic infection is found. For identification of an exact type of allergen carry out allergologichesky tests.
Treatment of a small tortoiseshell
The most effective way of treatment of a small tortoiseshell is identification and elimination of allergen. But if there are no opportunities to establish allergen or a small tortoiseshell has incidental character, then local therapy and reception of antihistaminic medicines help to eliminate symptoms quickly. Important during treatment to keep to a hypoallergenic diet, not to use perfumery and to contact to aggressive substances not to provoke a new attack of urticaria.
Small tortoiseshells carry out treatment the dermatologist and the allergist. Locally appoint the gel medicines possessing protivozudny, the cooling, antiedematous and calming effect. Medicine is effective at any forms of a small tortoiseshell, its action begins right after putting medicine on skin. Reception of antihistaminic medicines is inside shown. Feksofenadin, do not cause side effects in the form of drowsiness and violations of attention, and therefore do not prevent patients to lead a usual life. Glyukanat of calcium and calcium chloride, as well as all medicines of calcium, reduce displays of allergies. But it is necessary to be careful as at many patients with recurrent urticaria hypersensitivity at intravenous administration of calcium of chloride and sodium of thiosulphate is noted though these medicines I promote removal of allergens from an organism. In that case if antihistaminic medicines are ineffective and at severe forms of a small tortoiseshell apply kortikosteroidny therapy. Locally too low-percentage gormonosoderzhashchy ointments are shown.
At a food small tortoiseshell reception of adsorbents, light laxatives and the use of a large amount of liquid is necessary for the forced removal of allergen from an organism. As the small tortoiseshell meets at people with violations by the autonomic nervous system (vegeto-vascular dystonia) more often, reception of sedative medicines in the form of courses can eliminate a small tortoiseshell completely.
Autolimfotsitoterapiya is the latest method in treatment of a small tortoiseshell, statistical data speak about high efficiency of a technique. From blood of patients allocate elements of cellular immune system and enter them hypodermically after knocking over of a recurrence of a small tortoiseshell. People inclined to a small tortoiseshell need to abstain from contact with possible allergens and as preventive measures to accept antihistaminic medicines if the contact with possible allergen is inevitable, for example, before local anesthesia.