Vaginita (colpitises) – group of the diseases which are followed by inflammatory processes in a mucous membrane of a vagina, the polietiologichesky nature. As manifestations of vaginit serve the serous or purulent allocations, an itch, pain, burning, discomfort in genitals amplifying during an urination. Hit and reproduction in a vagina of pathogenic microflora is the main reason for vaginit. Chlamydial, trikhomonozny vaginita since they lead to violation of reproductive function are especially dangerous. Among inflammatory diseases of a female reproductive system of a vaginita occupy one of leading places, and their number steadily increases.
Among inflammatory diseases of a female reproductive system of a vaginita occupy one of leading places, and their number steadily increases. By statistical calculations, vaginity (colpitis) every third woman in the reproductive period suffers. Prevalence of vaginit is connected with growth of number of sexually transmitted infections, non-compliance with hygiene of intimate life, environmental problems, decrease in immune responsiveness.
At a vaginita inflammatory processes affect a mucous membrane of a vagina, and is frequent also genitalia – vulvas, causing the combined inflammation - vulvovaginit. Vaginit causes decrease in sexual activity of the woman, hurts during sexual intercourse, is followed by an unpleasant smell and feeling of discomfort in everyday life. Besides, vaginita can break normal functioning of all reproductive system of a female body, becoming the reason of the ascending infection of genitals, violations of menstrual function, chronic pains, extra-uterine pregnancy, infertility.
Reasons of vaginit
Hit and reproduction in a vagina of pathogenic microflora is the main reason for vaginit during the weakening of an organism, non-compliance with hygiene, a long mechanical travmatization of a mucous membrane. At children's age vaginit can develop at an infection drift in the hematogenic way with a blood-groove at scarlet fever, flu. The most frequent factors contributing to development of vaginit are:
- suppression of natural microflora of a vagina
Can result from deterioration in an ecological situation, stresses, uncontrolled drug intake (especially hormones and antibiotics), decrease in immune responsiveness and resistance of an organism to infections. In these conditions representatives of the normal microflora occupying a vagina become potentially dangerous and can cause development of a vaginit. Besides, local immunity of a vagina becomes incapable to resist to an urogenital infection.
- mechanical traumatizing genitals
Holding diagnostic and medical procedures - abortions, vyskablivaniye of a cavity of a uterus, sounding of a cavity of a uterus, a gisterosalpingoskopiya, statement and removal of Naval Forces (an intrauterine spiral), a gidrotubation, conducting childbirth at non-compliance with norms of an asepsis increase risk of development of a vaginit several times. Mechanical traumatizing fabrics when carrying out manipulations reduces their oxidation-reduction opportunities, also the drift of an infection is possible from the outside on gloves or tools. Besides, spread of an infection is promoted by misuse of hygienic and medical tampons. Development of a vaginit of a trauma is promoted also by foreign matters of a vagina.
- unprotected sexual communications and frequent change of sexual partners
The majority of the pathogenic microorganisms causing vaginita get into a vagina sexually. Attempts of their independent treatment lead to synchronization of inflammatory process, an imbalance in the environment of a vagina, to a retsidivirovaniye of vaginit.
- hormonal violations and changes
Pregnant women, women with diseases of endocrine glands, hypofunction of ovaries, and also patients in the climacteric period when occurs decrease in an organism of level of estrogen are predisposed to emergence of vaginit.
Classification of vaginit
Types of vaginit differ:
- on character and prescription of an inflammation – vaginita of a sharp, subsharp, chronic current;
- on age of patients - vaginita of girls, women of the genital, post-menstrual period;
- on the previous factors - postabortion, postnatal, postoperative, allergic vaginita;
- on character of exudate - vaginita serous, serous and purulent, gangrenous, etc.;
- on character of the activator - specific and nonspecific vaginita.
Specific and nonspecific vaginita
On character of the infectious agent who caused an inflammation allocate specific and nonspecific vaginita.
The gynecology refers the inflammatory processes caused to specific vaginita:
- gonokokky (gonorrheal vaginit);
- trichomonad (trikhomonadny vaginit);
- pale treponemy (syphilitic vaginit)
- hlamidiya (chlamydial vaginit);
- tuberculosis mikobakteriya (tubercular vaginit);
- mycoplasma, ureaplasma (mikoplazmenny or ureaplazmenny vaginit).
If pathogenic flora has the mixed character (there are other bacteria, viruses, mushrooms) in combination with above-mentioned activators, then vaginit all the same is specific. Development of nonspecific vaginit is caused by the conditional and pathogenic microorganisms normal making a part of natural microflora of a vagina, but under certain conditions becoming pathogenic:
- proteas, staphylococcus, streptococcus, colibacillus, gardnerella, sinegnoyny stick (bacterial vaginita);
- drozhzhepodobny fungi of a sort Candida Candida, the simplest mushrooms of Candida spp., Bacteroides spp., U. urealyticum, Corynebacterium spp., etc. (fungal vaginita);
- person, virus of simple herpes (virus vaginita);
- the mixed vaginita.
Specific and nonspecific vaginita have similar symptomatology, basic distinction between them consists in the principles of treatment: at development in the woman of a specific infectious vaginit examination and treatment of all her sexual partners is conducted. Often vaginita wear the mixed uniform, being caused by specific activators which the secondary opportunistic infection joins. It significantly complicates process of diagnostics and treatment of a vaginit. Therefore each patient with signs of a vaginit needs to conduct laboratory examination on existence of sexually transmitted infections.
The most informative are microscopy of vaginal dab, the separated vagina, a blood test research the PTsR method today. Regardless of the activator, any vaginita it is necessary to treat, even in case their manifestations are insignificant. Transition to a chronic current and the ascending spread of an infection cause inflammations in ovaries, a uterus, uterine tubes and can be complicated by infertility.
Symptoms and signs of a vaginit
The general symptoms for different types of vaginit are:
- changes of character, smell of color, the number of the separated vagina;
- itch, irritation, feeling of pressure and raspiraniye of a vagina and vulva;
- morbidity of sexual intercourse and urination;
- insignificant contact bleedings.
However, different types of vaginit have the special symptoms. At a gonorrheal vaginit of allocation usually dense, purulent white-yellow color. Trikhomonadny vaginit is characterized by foamy chartreuse allocations. Plentiful whitish-yellow bleach accompany development of a bacterial kokkovy vaginit. At a kandidozny vaginit curdled allocations have an appearance of friable white flakes. Vaginit, caused by gardnerelly, is followed transparent, unpleasantly smelling of fish, by allocations.
At a sharp vaginit of allocation is always more plentiful, symptoms vyrazhenny, are followed by reddening, a swelling, morbidity and local temperature increase of a vulva and vagina. In a chronic form of a vaginita proceed with more moderate manifestations: pains practically are always absent, allocations are more poor, the general health is better. Chronic vaginita can proceed for several months and years, becoming aggravated after viral infections, overcoolings, alcohol intake, during periods, pregnancy.
Treatment of a vaginit
Consultation of the gynecologist is necessary in case at you: there were unusual symptoms from a vagina; there were unprotected sexual communications or the sexual relations with several partners; you consider the possibility of pregnancy in the nearest future; after the vaginit treated symptoms remain. Medicinal therapy at a vaginita is appointed taking into account the activator and factors contributing to developing of a disease. For treatment of bacterial vaginit antibiotics taking into account sensitivity of the activator as inside, and in the form of vaginal means are often appointed.
Vaginita, caused by a fungal infection, are treated by special antifungal candles or creams (, ) and tablets (). At trikhomonadny vaginita are appointed metronidazole or in tablets. For treatment of noninfectious vaginit elimination of a source of irritation is important: it can be laundry detergent, intimate sprays and gels, hygienic tampons or napkins. At treatment of an atrophic vaginit appoint estrogen in the form of vaginal tablets, creams or rings.
Important point of treatment of vaginit is increase in immunity and restoration of normal microflora of a vagina. Old, chronic vaginita, as a rule, difficult give in to final treatment, often are followed by a recurrence. Therapy course duration at a vaginita depends on sharpness of a course of a disease and averages from 7 to 10 days. Upon termination of a course of therapy of a vaginit the analyses confirming a disease izlechennost surely undertake.
Consequences of a vaginit
The long current of a vaginit causes emotional and sexual disharmony, and also the serious violations of her reproductive health in the woman. The women suffering from a bacterial or trikhomonadny vaginit are exposed to bigger risk of infection with venereal diseases and HIV infection.
The started forms of a vaginit increase probability of emergence of a spontaneous abortion, extra-uterine pregnancy, premature birth, premature an izlitiya of amniotic waters, pre-natal infection of a fruit and the newborn with the infections which caused an inflammation. Therefore conducting pregnancy at women with is long the existing chronic vaginit demands special care.
In the postnatal period vaginit is serious threat of development in the woman of peritonitis, a metritis, an endometritis, sepsis. Infection of the newborn leads to violations of intestinal microflora and decrease in immune protection. At timely and correct treatment of a vaginita, as a rule, do not attract serious complications.
Prevention of a vaginit
Respect for hygiene of genitals can prevent development of some types of vaginit and facilitate their current. It is necessary to avoid use of the flavored means of intimate hygiene, tampons, laying, napkins, and also washed with antibacterial properties. The protected sex with condom use, an exception of casual sexual contacts, will help to avoid sexually transmitted infections and development of specific vaginit.
Preference should be given in underwear to the products from cotton providing air current to tissues of genitalia. In prevention of vaginit an important role is played by character of food. The use of sour-milk food, fresh fruit and vegetables and restriction of sweets will help formation of the correct microflora of a vagina steady against development of vaginit.