Nervous diseases — the diseases developing owing to damage of a head and spinal cord, and also peripheral nervous trunks and . Nervous diseases are a subject of studying of specialized area of medical knowledge — neurology. As the nervous system represents the difficult device binding and the regulating all bodies and systems of an organism, the neurology closely interacts with other clinical disciplines, such as cardiology, gastroenterology, gynecology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, orthopedics, traumatology, logopedics, etc. The main expert in the field of nervous diseases is the neurologist.further...
Nervous diseases — the diseases developing owing to damage of a head and spinal cord, and also peripheral nervous trunks and . Nervous diseases are a subject of studying of specialized area of medical knowledge — neurology. As the nervous system represents the difficult device binding and the regulating all bodies and systems of an organism, the neurology closely interacts with other clinical disciplines, such as cardiology, gastroenterology, gynecology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, orthopedics, traumatology, logopedics, etc. The main expert in the field of nervous diseases is the neurologist.
Nervous diseases can be genetically determined (a miotoniya of Rossolimo-Shteynerta-Kurshmana, Fridreykh's ataxy, Wilson's disease, Pierre-Mari's ataxy) or acquired. Except hereditary factors, can result adverse conditions of pre-natal development of a fruit in congenital defects of nervous system (a mikrotsefaliya, a bazilyarny impressiya, Kimerli's anomaly, Kiari's anomaly, a platibaziya, congenital hydrocephaly): hypoxia, radiation, infection (measles, rubella, syphilis, clamidiosis, cytomegalic inclusion disease, HIV), toxic influences, threat of spontaneous termination of pregnancy, eklampsiya, Rhesus factor conflict and so forth. The infectious or traumatic factors influencing nervous system directly after the child's birth (purulent meningitis, asphyxia of the newborn, a patrimonial trauma, a hemolytic disease) often lead to development of such nervous diseases as a cerebral palsy, children's epilepsy, mental retardation.
The acquired nervous diseases are often connected with infectious damage of various parts of the nervous system. As a result of penetration of an infection meningitis, encephalitis develop, miyelit, brain abscess, arakhnoidit, disseminated encephalomyelitis, ganglionevrit, etc. diseases. The separate group is made by nervous diseases of a traumatic etiology: ChMT, vertebral and spinal trauma, traumatic neuritis. The nervous diseases arising at advanced age are caused by generally vascular changes (distsirkulyatorny encephalopathy, TIA, an ischemic stroke, a hemorrhagic stroke), is more rare — metabolic violations (Parkinson's disease). Still high is an incidence of nervous diseases of oncological character. Limitation of space in a cranium or the vertebral channel leads to the fact that even benign tumors of this localization (an astrotsitom, a kraniofaringiom, a ganglionevrom) have a malignant current. Besides, problematical character of full removal of tumors of TsNS causes their frequent retsidivirovaniye.
Clinical displays of nervous diseases directly depend on what part of the nervous system was involved in pathological process. So, nervous diseases with damage of a brain can be followed by a headache, dizziness, disorder of gait and coordination, violation of the speech, decrease in hearing and sight, paresis and paralyzes of the central character, change of mentality. The nervous diseases connected with pathology of a spinal cord are shown by motive and sensitive violations lower than the level of defeat. Diseases of peripheral nervous system (neuralgia of a trigeminal nerve, neuritis of a facial nerve, intercostal neuralgia, cervical pleksit, polyneuropathies, a neuropathy of a beam nerve, a neuropathy of a femoral nerve, etc.) are characterized by a pain syndrome, disorders of sensitivity, muscular atrophies, motive violations, vegetative and trophic changes in a zone of an innervation of the affected nerve.
The base of tool diagnosis of nervous diseases is traditionally made by such researches as a X-ray analysis of a backbone, Ekho-EG, EEG, REG, an electromyography, children of the 1st year have lives - a neyrosonografiya. They are succeeded by more exact diagnostic methods: computer tomography, MRT, PET of a brain, UZDG of vessels of the head, duplex scanning. And, if REG and an ekhoentsefalografiya as ways of diagnosis of nervous diseases, gradually lose value, then EMG and EEG remain irreplaceable. They allow to reveal the functional changes happening at many nervous diseases which are not diagnosed by neurovisualization methods. At some nervous diseases diagnostic search demands carrying out a lyumbalny puncture, a stereotaksichesky biopsy, a puncture of ventricles of a brain, etc. diagnostic operations. As the nervous system is closely interconnected with other bodies and systems of an organism, consultations of other experts are often necessary for the neurologist (the children's neurologist) for more exact diagnosing of nervous diseases: ophthalmologist, endocrinologist, cardiologist, orthopedist etc.
Treatment of nervous diseases, as a rule, includes the whole complex of the actions directed not only on fight against a cause of illness and its etiopatogenetichesky mechanisms, but also on the maximum restoration of the neurologic deficiency which resulted from a disease. For this purpose in therapy of nervous diseases the physical therapy, LFK, mechanotherapy, reflexotherapy, manual therapy is widely used. Treatment of aneurisms, tumors, intracerebral hematomas, abscesses and cysts of a brain demands surgical intervention. In some cases expeditious treatment is applied at epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Brain operations and interventions on a spinal cord are carried out by neurosurgeons. They perform modern surgical treatment of nervous diseases by means of the low-invasive microsurgical equipment and under neurovisualization control. The techniques of functional neurosurgery with success used at the torsion dystonia, a cerebral palsy, trochees of Gentington and other nervous diseases which are followed by violations of a muscular tone, a tremor or giperkineza are developed.
To get acquainted in more detail with the reasons, symptoms, by methods of diagnostics and treatment of separate nervous diseases it is possible in appropriate section of the Medical reference book of diseases. On the website "Medicine-for-you.com" descriptions of the main hardware researches helping to diagnose various nervous diseases are also submitted. Here it is possible to find information on the surgical interventions applied in treatment of nervous diseases and the catalog of the medical institutions providing the neurologic help.further...