The pulmonology (Latin of pulmo, logos – "the doctrine about lungs") is the section of medicine studying diseases of bodies of respiratory system: lungs, pleura, trachea and bronchial tubes, clinical displays of diseases, specifics of diagnostics, methods of treatment and prevention. Not only pneumatic ways, but also the central nervous system, a thorax (a grudinno-costal framework, intercostal muscles, a diaphragm), the blood circulatory system in lungs enter respiratory system. Therefore in a broad sense also pathology of other bodies of a chest cavity, morphologically and functionally connected with respiratory organs is within the remit of pulmonology.further...
Diseases of respiratory organs
The pulmonology (Latin of pulmo, logos – "the doctrine about lungs") is the section of medicine studying diseases of bodies of respiratory system: lungs, pleura, trachea and bronchial tubes, clinical displays of diseases, specifics of diagnostics, methods of treatment and prevention. Not only pneumatic ways, but also the central nervous system, a thorax (a grudinno-costal framework, intercostal muscles, a diaphragm), the blood circulatory system in lungs enter respiratory system. Therefore in a broad sense also pathology of other bodies of a chest cavity, morphologically and functionally connected with respiratory organs is within the remit of pulmonology.
Except lungs treat bodies in which research and treatment the pulmonology is engaged: vascular and nervous bunches of a root of a lung, lymph nodes, thymus, diaphragm, etc. The main function of respiratory system is ensuring gas exchange in lungs.
Pulmonologists are engaged in prevention, diagnostics and treatment of pulmonary diseases and bronchial tubes. Expeditious treatment of pulmonary diseases and other bodies of a chest cavity is carried out by thoracic surgeons (from Greek thorax – a thorax).
Within pulmonology the independent direction – phthisiology which area of studying is diagnostics, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis of lungs is allocated. The problem of prevalence of tuberculosis is one of the most urgent in modern medicine.
The pulmonology is engaged in treatment of the following types of pathological processes:
- chronic nonspecific (obstructive) pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema of lungs, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary hypertensia, chronic pulmonary heart, bronkhoektatichesky disease, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma);
- destructive pulmonary diseases (lung abscess, lung gangrene);
- diseases of a pleural cavity (pleurisy, spontaneous pheumothorax, gemotoraks, hilotoraks);
- traumatic injuries of a thorax;
- benign tumors of lungs and pleura, lung cancer and pleura, sredosteniye tumors;
- sharp inflammatory diseases of respiratory organs (tracheitis, pneumonia, bronchitis);
- the medical emergencies causing sharp respiratory insufficiency (respiratory a distress syndrome (a shock lung), a thrombembolia of a pulmonary artery, the asthmatic status);
- system diseases with disseminirovanny processes in lungs (a mukovistsidoza, an alveolita, a sarkoidoza, etc.);
- the congenital and acquired malformations of lungs, a trachea and bronchial tubes.
Many diseases of respiratory organs have the heavy and long current leading to serious consequences for health, reduce duration and reduce quality of life of patients.
In modern medical science the pulmonology gained the special importance. Diseases of bronchial tubes and lungs take the leading positions in modern society, their share in the general incidence of the population varies from 41% to 53%.
Rapid deterioration in an ecological situation, increase in level of the traumatism which is followed by injuries of a thorax and bodies of a chest cavity, growth of oncological diseases of respiratory organs, a stressful factor professional harm promote the steady growth and rejuvenation of pulmonary diseases.
The address to the pulmonologist usually happens at emergence of characteristic symptoms of pulmonary diseases: dry or damp cough, short wind at rest or at physical activity, attacks of suffocation, thorax pains, the increased body temperature. Quite often pulmonary diseases are casual finds at radiological inspection.
It is possible to suspect this or that disease of respiratory organs already on the basis of complaints and an auskultativny picture of lungs. As necessary diagnostic testings for specification of nature of pathology of lungs serve the X-ray analysis of bodies of a thorax, these researches of function of external breath, a bronkhoskopiya, a bronchography, a computer tomography of lungs, an angiopulmonografiya. From laboratory methods of diagnosis of pulmonary diseases the greatest value has a phlegm research on cytology, microbic flora, and atypical cages.
Treatment of pulmonary diseases depending on their character can be both conservative, and surgical. Conservative actions at treatment of pulmonary diseases and bronchial tubes are directed to fluidifying of a phlegm, reduction of its quantity and simplification of evacuation from a bronchial tree, expansion of bronchial tubes, removal of a spasm of bronchial muscles, removal of inflammatory process in bronchopulmonary system, normalization of gas exchange in pulmonary fabric.
Surgical treatment of pulmonary diseases and other bodies of a chest cavity in many cases is an emergency measure for elimination of dangerous, life-endangering states. Planned surgical treatment of pulmonary diseases is carried out after detailed inspection and impossibility conservative treatment of a disease.
The simplest and effective measures of prevention of pulmonary diseases are the refusal of smoking and passing of inspection at the pulmonologist of times a year.
Diseases of respiratory organs are in more detail presented in the Medical reference book of diseases on the website "Medicine-for-you.com".