Delay of monthly
Delay of monthly – the violation of menstrual function which is shown absence of cyclic bleeding over 35 days. It can be caused by the physiological reasons (approach of pregnancy, a premenopauz, etc.), and also various organic or functional frustration. The delay of monthly arises during various periods of life of the woman: during formation of menstrual function, in the reproductive period and in a premenopauza. A periods delay over five days – an occasion to see a doctor. Diagnostics of a delay of monthly is sent to search for the main reason for this symptom on which also further tactics of treatment depends.
Delay of monthly
Delay monthly failure in a menstrual cycle at which menstrual bleeding does not come in estimated time is considered. The delay monthly, not exceeding 5-7 days, is not regarded as pathology. As options of a delay monthly serve such violations of a menstrual cycle as , and , shown an urezheniye of menstrual bleedings. The delay of monthly can be observed in the different age periods of life of the woman: during puberty, in a reproductive phase, in a premenopauza and to be caused by the physiological or pathological reasons.
The delay of monthly is explained by the Eestestvenny, physiological reasons in the pubertatny period during formation of a menstrual cycle when within 1-1,5 years of periods can have irregular character. Women of reproductive age have a delay of monthly is natural at approach of pregnancy and in the period of a lactation. During the premenopauzalny period menstrual function gradually dies away, there are changes of a rhythm, duration of periods, and delays of monthly are replaced by their complete cessation.
All other options of a delay monthly, the exceeding 5-7 days, are not explained by the natural phenomena, in such cases urgent consultation of the gynecologist is required. The menstrual cycle of the woman is the thin mechanism which is carrying out maintenance of genital function and reflecting any deviations in a condition of the general health. Therefore for the best understanding of the reasons and mechanisms of a delay of monthly, it is necessary to represent accurately what is norm and a deviation in the characteristic of a menstrual cycle.
Characteristic of a menstrual cycle
Functioning of an organism of the woman of childbearing age has cyclic regularities. Monthly bleedings are the final stage of a menstrual cycle. Menstrual allocations demonstrate that fertilization of an ovum and approach of pregnancy did not happen. Besides, the regularity of periods indicates that the organism of the woman functions harmoniously. The delay monthly, on the contrary, demonstrates the certain happened failures.
Approach of the first periods usually happens between 11-15 years. First menstrual bleedings can irregularly come, the delay monthly during this period is normal, however 12-18 months later the menstrual cycle has to be created finally. The beginning of periods before 11 years and absence after 17 years is pathology. The delay of approach monthly up to 18-20 years demonstrates obvious pathological processes: the general lag in physical development, dysfunction of a hypophysis, an underdevelopment of ovaries, a uterus hypoplasia, etc.
Normal periods come and come to an end through certain temporary intervals. At 60% of women duration of a cycle makes 28 days, that is 4 weeks that corresponds to lunar month. Approximately at 30% of women the cycle lasts 21 days, and about 10% of women have a menstrual cycle lasting 30-35 days. On average menstrual bleeding proceeds 3-7 days, and admissible blood loss for one periods makes 50-150 ml. Complete cessation of periods happens after 45-50 years and approach of a menopause marks.
The irregularity and fluctuations in durations of a menstrual cycle, systematic delays of monthly over 5-10 days, alternation of poor and plentiful menstrual bleedings, speak about serious deviations in health of the woman. To control approach or a delay monthly, each woman should conduct a menstrual calendar, celebrating the day of the beginning of the next periods. In this case the delay monthly will be visible at once.
Delay monthly and pregnancy
Pregnancy is the most frequent reason of a delay monthly at women of childbearing age. Changes of flavoring and olfactory feelings, appetite, emergence of nausea and vomiting in the mornings, drowsiness, painful feelings in mammary glands demonstrate to probable approach of pregnancy, besides a delay of monthly. It is impossible to reject a possibility of approach of pregnancy even in those cases if the interrupted sexual intercourse, sexual contact took place during periods, in "safe" days or with condom use, in the presence of an intrauterine spiral, reception of oral contraceptives etc. as any method of contraception does not give 100% contraceptive effect.
If there was a delay monthly, and in the last month the woman had sexual contacts, then it is possible to define pregnancy by special tests. The principle of action of all tests for pregnancy (test strips, tablet or jet) is identical: they define existence in urine of horionichesky gonadotropny hormone (HGCh or HG) which elaboration begins in an organism 7 days later after fertilization of an ovum. Concentration of HGCh in urine increases gradually, and modern, even the most sensitive tests, are capable to define only it after a delay monthly and not earlier than for 12-14 day after the happened conception. It is necessary "to read" test result the first 5-10 minutes. Emergence during this period of time even of hardly noticeable second strip speaks about positive result and existence of pregnancy. If the second strip was shown later, then such result is not reliable. At a delay monthly for obtaining reliable result the test for pregnancy is recommended to repeat two times with an interval of 2-3 days.
It is necessary to remember that leading sex life, the woman can always become pregnant therefore it is necessary to watch closely a menstrual cycle and to pay attention to delays of monthly. However, the delay of monthly can be caused not only pregnancy, but also nearby very much others, sometimes very serious and reasons hazardous to health.
Other reasons of a delay of monthly
The gynecology conditionally divides all reasons causing a delay monthly into two big groups: physiological and pathological reasons of a delay of monthly. In some cases the delay of monthly is caused by special states, transitional, adaptation for an organism, and usually does not exceed 5-7 days. However, some of these states are boundary, and at their aggravation there can be organic violations conducting to a delay monthly as to display of this or that pathology. It is possible to consider caused by the physiological reasons:
- delay monthly, caused by strong emotional or physical pressure: the stresses raised by sports, academic loads or loadings at work;
- delay monthly owing to unusual changes in a way of life: changes of kind of work, sharp change of climate;
- delay monthly because of insufficient food and observance of strict diets;
- delay of hormonal reorganizations, monthly during periods: puberty or climax;
- delay monthly as the state after cancellation of contraceptive hormonal means caused by temporary hyper braking of work of ovaries after long receiving hormones from the outside. If the delay of monthly is observed on 2-3 cycles, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist.
- delay of the medicines of the emergency contraception, monthly after application, containing a high dose of hormones;
- delay monthly in the postnatal period, connected with production of the hormone of a hypophysis of Prolactinum which is responsible for secretion of milk and suppressing cyclic function of ovaries. If the woman does not nurse, then the periods have to be restored approximately 2 months later after the delivery. At breastfeeding implementation the periods are restored after the child's otnyatiya from a breast. However, if the delay of monthly makes over a year after the delivery, it is necessary to consult at the gynecologist.
- delay monthly, caused by catarrhal diseases (a SARS, flu), chronic diseases: gastritis, violation of functions of a thyroid gland, diabetes, diseases of kidneys and . other, and also reception of some medicines.
In all cases, (except when the delay of monthly is caused by age hormonal reorganizations or a lactation), the term of a delay should not exceed 5-7 days, otherwise it is necessary to visit the gynecologist not to allow development of serious diseases.
First of all, diseases of the sexual sphere belong to the pathological reasons of a delay of monthly. In this group of the reasons allocate:
- delay monthly, caused inflammatory (adneksit, ooforit) and tumoral (uterus myoma) diseases of genitals. Inflammatory processes in genitals, except a delay of monthly, can be shown by pathological allocations and pains in the bottom of a stomach. These states demand the emergency treatment as they can lead to serious complications and infertility;
- delay monthly, caused polikistozy ovaries and the related hormonal violations. Also at a polikistoza of ovaries, except a delay of monthly, the body weight increase, emergence of seborrhea and eels, the excessive growth of hair is observed;
- delay monthly, caused by the cyst of a yellow body of an ovary which is formed owing to hormonal violation. For a rassasyvaniye of a cyst of a yellow body and restoration of a normal monthly cycle, the doctor appoints a course of hormonal therapy;
- delay monthly after termination of pregnancy which, though meets quite often, but is not norm. Monthly after abortion not only sharp change of a hormonal state, but the mechanical injuries done during a uterus scraping can be the reason of a delay;
- delay monthly owing to the stood or extra-uterine pregnancy, an abortion on the early terms demanding the emergency medical intervention;
- delay monthly, caused by enrollment or loss of weight, critical for health. For the women having anorexia, the delay of monthly can turn back their complete cessation.
Thus, regardless of the reasons, the delay monthly is the basis of an urgent visit to the gynecologist.
Inspection at a delay of monthly
For establishment of the reasons of a delay of monthly the inspections supplementing gynecologic survey can be required:
- the measurement and graphic display of changes of basal temperature allowing to make sure available or lack of commission of an ovulation;
- definition in blood of the HGCh level, hormones of ovaries, a hypophysis and other glands;
- ultrasonic diagnostics of bodies of a small pelvis for pregnancy definition (uterine, extra-uterine), the tumoral damages of a uterus, ovaries and other reasons which caused a delay of monthly;
- KT and MRT of a brain for an exception of tumors of a hypophysis and ovaries.
Summing up the result above of told, it should be noted that the delay monthly by what circumstances it would not be caused, should not remain unaddressed women. The delay of monthly can be caused as a banal weather changing, or joyful expectation of motherhood, and the most serious diseases. At emergence of a delay monthly timely consultation of the doctor will exempt from the unnecessary disorders and experiences able considerably to aggravate this state. In families where girls grow up, it is necessary to carry out their competent sex education, explaining including the fact that the delay monthly is a problem which needs to be solved together with mother and the doctor.