Scale – adjournment of a dense raid of yellowish-brown color on roots and a neck of teeth. It is shown by an unpleasant smell from a mouth, bleeding of gums. Represents visible cosmetic defect. Promotes development of pathological processes in an oral cavity and is the frequent reason of development of caries, a gingivit, a periodontal disease, shaking and the subsequent loss of teeth. Besides, adjournment of a scale is the center of spread of an infection to other bodies (respiratory and cardiovascular systems).
The scale is a firm weight on the surface of teeth which is formed of a dental plaque, the food remains under the influence of active agents of saliva and owing to activity of microorganisms in an oral cavity. In the absence of regular professional hygiene of an oral cavity, the scale is formed even over time at persons who follow all rules of toothbrushing.
Mechanism of formation of a scale
According to WHO data the scale is found in 80% of adult population. A basis for a scale is the dental plaque, slime, microorganisms and slushchenny cages of an epithelium. Over time the raid hardens and gains dark color at the expense of content of iron salts in it and calcium, dark color to a raid is given also by dyes in food.
The scale first of all appears in places, remote for toothbrushing, in places of a congestion of microorganisms and in places which do not self-clean in the course of chewing. The term of formation of a scale from 4th to 6 months then some more months pass to the maximum level of its distribution. Level of distribution of a scale depends on specific features of an organism.
Recently the scale began a thicket to be diagnosed at children's and teenage age. It is connected with the wrong hygiene of an oral cavity, errors in food and a problem of children's smoking. With age the quantity of a scale only increases.
Reasons of emergence of a scale
Each person is subject to emergence of a scale, but the main reasons for its excessive education at respect for hygiene of an oral cavity are violations of salt exchange and untimely change of toothbrushes. Too soft toothbrushes are also not capable to clean all raid. Low-quality toothpastes, chewing of food mainly on one party because of injuries or because of defects of a tooth alignment are the contributing factors for formation of a scale.
If in a diet of the person the long time prevails soft food, then natural clarification of teeth in the course of chewing is broken that promotes a congestion of a dental plaque.
At first the scale appears on necks of teeth, but over time passes to a crown and a fang. In the absence of due leaving the scale is formed not only on teeth, but also on dentures.
Gipersalivation, change of composition of saliva, violation of exchange processes and a disease of digestive tract promote emergence of a scale.
Long reception of antibacterial medicines, smoking and specific features of a tooth alignment, such as wrong arrangement of teeth and insufficiently smooth surface, contribute to emergence of a scale.
Clinical manifestations of a scale
At first around a neck of tooth the rim, the most noticeable from the inside of a tooth alignment is formed dark color. Further the scale passes to a crown of tooth and to the external surface of teeth. There is bleeding of gums and an unpleasant smell from a mouth. Besides an esthetic problem, the scale leads to damages of desnevy nipples.
The scale can be naddesnevy and poddesnevy. The Naddesnevy scale is swept up at survey and to the patient, it is an esthetic problem as appearance of the person suffers. It has yellowish or brown color and a firm consistence.
Poddesneva the scale very firm and dense, has greenish-black or dark brown color. Poddesneva the scale densely adjoins to the surface of a fang and is visible only to the stomatologist at tool inspection.
Treatment of a scale
Treatment of a scale consists in its regular removal. 1-2 times a year are recommended to hold this procedure. At first the stomatologist deletes a scale and a raid, then grinds and polishes the surface of teeth.
Removal of a scale by means of hooks is not used today, in view of morbidity of the procedure and its low efficiency. Removal of a scale is the most effective during ultrasonic toothbrushing. During the procedure fluctuations of ultrasound therefore the surface of tooth is cleared without microinjuries are generated. The effect is reached both because of a contact with a nozzle of a surface of tooth, and thanks to effect of cavitation – to a strong turbulence of liquid. Thanks to effect of cavitation during the procedure for removal of a raid and a stone of average density there is no need to touch the surface of tooth. Even if the scale very dense, then a nozzle is enough touch for its removal.
During cavitation from water oxygen at the expense of which the processed site is disinfected is emitted. Thanks to oxygen mechanical clarification happens quicker and more simply. At removal of a scale with a high density it is previously softened special medicines. In this case removal of a scale is painless without travmatization of gums and enamel of teeth.
At a stage of polishing and grinding apply special pastes which are safe for gums and mucous a mouth on the surface of teeth. The procedure of removal of a scale is painless, but brings to many patients discomfort therefore it is recommended to hold it with anesthesia.
Several days after the procedure it is necessary to refrain from the use of the food containing dyes. And in the subsequent to carry out this procedure less often, it is recommended to pay more attention to hygiene of an oral cavity, to use qualitative toothpastes and brushes.